Ophthalmic medical student education is a cornerstone to improving eye health care globally. We review the current state of the literature, listing barriers to potential best practices for undergraduate ophthalmology teaching and learning within medical curricula. We describe recent advances and pedagogical approaches in ophthalmic education and propose specific recommendations for further improvements and research. Future research should concentrate on developing teaching and learning innovations that may result in a more time- and resource-effective models for interactive and integrated learning. As well as demonstrating that a competency-based approach results not just in better eye health, but also improvements in patient care, education, and medical care in general. By optimizing teaching available through improved evidence-based education, the ultimate goal is to increase medical students' knowledge and produce graduates who are highly trained in eye examination skills, resulting in improved patient eye care through timely diagnosis, referrals, and treatment.