A systematic review and meta-analysis of the psychosis continuum: evidence for a psychosis proneness–persistence–impairment model of psychotic disorder

@article{vanos2008ASR,
  title={A systematic review and meta-analysis of the psychosis continuum: evidence for a psychosis proneness–persistence–impairment model of psychotic disorder},
  author={Jim van os and Richard J Linscott and Inez Myin-Germeys and Phillipe Delespaul and Lydia Krabbendam},
  journal={Psychological Medicine},
  year={2008},
  volume={39},
  pages={179 - 195}
}
A systematic review of all reported incidence and prevalence studies of population rates of subclinical psychotic experiences reveals a median prevalence rate of around 5% and a median incidence rate of around 3%. A meta-analysis of risk factors reveals associations with developmental stage, child and adult social adversity, psychoactive drug use, and also male sex and migrant status. The small difference between prevalence and incidence rates, together with data from follow-up studies… 

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A twin study of genetic and environmental determinants of abnormal persistence of psychotic experiences in young adulthood

  • J. WigmanR. van Winkel J. van os
  • Psychology, Medicine
    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics
  • 2011
The findings suggest that persistence of subclinical psychosis is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, providing the possibility to study the (possibly modifiable) etiology underlying the longitudinal process of persistence of the early expression of psychosis liability.

Evidence for a persistent, environment-dependent and deteriorating subtype of subclinical psychotic experiences: a 6-year longitudinal general population study

The results suggest that the outcome of early developmental deviation associated with later expression of psychotic experiences is contingent on the degree of later interaction with environmental risks inducing, first, persistence of psychosis experiences and, second, progression to onset of need for care and service use.
...

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