A survey on MAC protocols for complex self-organizing cognitive radio networks


Background As modern large-scale wireless networks grow in size, complexity and variety, the change in networks is not just terms of scale but also in the emergence of newer types of communication networks such as cognitive radio (CR) networks, ad-hoc, peer-to-peer (P2P), multiagent, wireless sensors, internet of Things (IoT), social and cloud-based networks. An intelligent cognitive radio network has the capability to self-organize, selflearn and self-configure to utilize an unoccupied band and to transmit based on the available spectrum resources. Various inherent nonlinearities in network operations can lead to an increase in complex communications, which can have unpredictable effects on different aspects of networks such as communication costs, traffic congestion and so on (Niazi and Hussain 2013a). Due to the intrinsic nonlinearity, modern networks can be modelled and simulated in a better way by treating them as artificial Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS), or generalizing as Complex Adaptive COmmunicatiOn NetworkS and environments (CACOONS) (Niazi and Hussain 2013b). Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) or complex systems are characterized by the interactions between their numerous elements often leading to emergent phenomena whose effects are often untraceable Abstract

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@inproceedings{Shah2016ASO, title={A survey on MAC protocols for complex self-organizing cognitive radio networks}, author={Munam Ali Shah and Sijing Zhang and Muhammad Kamran and Qaisar Javaid and Bahjat Fatima}, year={2016} }