Bioavailable Concentrations of Delphinidin and Its Metabolite, Gallic Acid, Induce Antioxidant Protection Associated with Increased Intracellular Glutathione in Cultured Endothelial Cells
We investigated the involvement of ROS such as H2O2 and O2*-, and GSH in As4.1 cell death induced by pyrogallol. The intracellular H2O2 levels were decreased or increased depending on the concentration and incubation time of pyrogallol. The levels of O2*- were significantly increased. Pyrogallol reduced the intracellular GSH content. And ROS scavengers, Tempol, Tiron, Trimetazidine and NAC could not significantly down-regulate the production of H2O2 and O2*-. However, these ROS scavengers slightly inhibited apoptosis. Interestingly, Tempol showing the recovery of GSH depletion induced by pyrogallol significantly decreased apoptosis without the significant reduction of intracellular O2*- levels. SOD and catalase did not change the level of H2O2 but decreased the level of O2*-. The inhibition of GSH depletion by these was accompanied with the decrease of apoptosis, as evidenced by sub-G1 DNA content, annexin V staining, mitochondria membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) and Western data. In addition, ROS scavengers and SOD did not alter a G2 phase accumulation of the cell cycle induced by pyrogallol. However, catalase changed the cell cycle distributions of pyrogallol-treated cells to those of pyrogallol-untreated cells. In summary, we have demonstrated that pyrogallol potently generates ROS, especially O2*-, in As4.1 JG cells, and Tempol, SOD and catalase could rescue to a lesser or greater extent cells from pyrogallol-induced apoptosis through the up-regulation of intracellular GSH content.