Phthalates and nonylphenols in urban runoff: Occurrence, distribution and area emission factors.
The fugacity-based quantitative water-air-sediment interaction (QWASI) model is described which can be used to establish a mass balance for an organic or metallic contaminant in a lake ecosystem consisting of water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and the atmosphere. A suite of such models is described and discussed with various degrees of complexity including versions treating equilibrium and non-equilibrium situations, steady-state and dynamic conditions with either single or multiple segments. It is suggested that when seeking to apply a mass balance model to a specific lake and contaminant situation, it is desirable to start with a simple model and increase the complexity as circumstances dictate. This approach is illustrated by application of QWASI models to the Rihand Reservoir in India for lindane and benzo(a)pyrene. The roles are discussed by which such models can contribute to improved management of chemicals that may adversely affect aquatic systems, especially in developing regions.