A succession of paradigms in ecology: Essentialism to materialism and probabilism

  title={A succession of paradigms in ecology: Essentialism to materialism and probabilism},
  author={Daniel Simberloff},
Lewontin (1974a), in his provocative essay ‘Darwin and Mendel — The Materialist Revolution,’ suggests that by the time On the Origin of Species was published in 1859, the notion of evolving species was already firmly established in both lay and academic circles. Embedding the evolutionary species concept in a matrix of new evolutionary thought in many areas of the arts, natural sciences, and social sciences during the late eighteenth and first half of the nineteenth centuries, he points to a… 
The background and some current problems of theoretical ecology
The term ‘Oekologie’ was coined in 1866 by Ernest Haeckel in a book relating animal morphology to Charles Darwin’s then new theory of evolution by natural selection, and the Darwinian derivation and emphasis of ecology has also been noted by historians of science.
The competitive Darwin
Abstract Although Darwin was not the first to conceive directional selection as a mechanism of phenotypic change, it is his ideas that were received, and that have shaped population biology to this
John Vandermeer - The dialectics of ecology: Biological, historical and political intersections
Biological determinism in the age of genomics is examined, particularly as it is associated with racialist understandings of human genetic variation and how biological variation generated by genetic, epigenetic, environmental, and chance effects invalidate biological determinist explanations of the human social condition.
Neither superorganisms nor mere species aggregates: Charles Elton’s sociological analogies and his moderate holism about ecological communities
This paper analyzes community ecologist Charles Elton’s ideas on animal communities, and situates them with respect to the classical opposition between organicist–holistic and
Ernst Haeckel’s “ecology” in Russia of the first half of the twentieth century
It is hypothesised that Haeckel’s influence on Russian biologists was somewhat more than commonly thought and development of ecology in the first half of the last century demonstrates that widely used opinion should be corrected.
The roots of multilevel selection: concepts of biological individuality in the early twentieth century.
After reviewing the historical record, it is believed to prove instructive to revisit these early-twentieth-century biologists and reassess their criteria for biological individuality and reveal that they constructed a multilevel explanation of evolution that anticipated modern interpretations in several important ways.
Reconsidering the Notion of the Organic
The advent of the Enlightenment entailed a radical shift in worldviews from one wherein life dominates all events to the perspective that all phenomena ultimately are elicited by encounters between
Process ecology: A transactional worldview
Process ecology provides an opportunity to approach some contemporary enigmas, such as the origin of life, in a more accommodating light, because it depicts ecosystem development as arising out of at least two antagonistic trends via what is analogous to a dialectic.
Ecology , a Dialog between the Quick and the Dead
June 30, 2002 · Emergence Robert Ulanowicz Ulanowicz R. Ecology, a Dialog between the Quick and the Dead. Emergence: Complexity and Organization. 2002 Jun 30 [last modified: 2016 Nov 21]. Edition 1.
Conceptual Pitfalls and Rangeland Resilience
The history of rangeland ecology has been largely a struggle to overturn the early-20th-century notions of climax, balance of nature, stability, and equilibrium.1 These ideals prevailed for decades


Essay Review : Genetics, Eugenics and Society: Internalists and Externalists in Contemporary History of Science
  • G. Allen
  • Education
    Social studies of science
  • 1976
The field of the history of genetics now offers the prospect of a genuine integration of internalist and externalist elements, which is less concerned with fine points in the development of the scientific ideas themselves.
The Poverty of Historicism
On its publication in 1957, The Poverty of Historicism was hailed by Arthur Koestler as 'probably the only book published this year which will outlive the century.' A devastating criticism of fixed
The Problem of Lysenkoism
The Lysenkoist movement, which agitated Soviet biology and agriculture for more than twenty years, and which remains attractive to segments of the left outside the Soviet Union today, was a
Animal Aggregations.
  • Biology
  • 1931
Wheeler, in 1930, classified aggregations into loosely integrated associations and more permanent societies, and Wheeler has shown more than thirty cases of prolonged association of young and adults in five orders of insects.
The Theory of Diversity-Stability Relationships in Ecology
  • D. Goodman
  • Environmental Science
    The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 1975
There is no simple relationship between diversity and stability in ecological systems, and an alternate perspective for interpreting population stability is suggested.
Differences of opinion are obviously possible on the degree to which admittedly oversimplified theoretical models can explain some of the complex observational phenomena to be found in nature.
A critical review of the role which each field played in the development of the other is provided to convey to other ecologists some of the lessons which Tribolium workers have extracted from their experience using mathematical and lab­ oratory models in conjunction with one another.
Elements of Physical Biology.
The author has the problem of evolution always before him, and considers analytically the effect on population of a change in the behaviour of individuals in Elements of Physical Biology.
An outline of the dynamics of animal populations.
The characteristic of balance is sustained and effective compensatory reaction which maintains populations in being in spite of even violent changes in the environment, and which adjusts their densities in general conformity with prevailing conditions.
Two Cases of Resource Partitioning in an Intertidal Community: Making the Right Prediction for the Wrong Reason
  • P. Dayton
  • Environmental Science
    The American Naturalist
  • 1973
Predictions generated by two models which might be used in the construction of a general competition-based theory of the structure of an intertidal community are tested, suggesting that their simplifying assumptions are based on parameters sufficient to describe the community process in question.