OBJECTIVE To evaluate the change of macular retinal thickness and vision before and after 23G minimally invasive vitrectomy to idiopathic macular epiretinal membranes. METHODS Clinical data of 40 patients who were confirmed as idiopathic epiretinal membrane and accept vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling was retrospectively analyzed. In regular follow-up before and after operation, OCT (optical coherence tomography) inspection was conducted for the best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, eye-ground photography, and fundus oculi. In addition, the follow eye which has no relevant ophthalmological disease was treated as the control group. RESULTS The vision greatly improves after operation, and the thickness in central fovea of macula significantly decreases. Postoperative vision shows obvious linear correlation with postoperative thickness in central fovea of macula. The thickness in division 9 of macula sharply decreases after operation, while the retina in central macula and nasal sides significantly thickens compared with normal group. CONCLUSION Internal limiting membrane peeling can enhance the vision of patients and improve macula morphology, while the status in central macula and nasal side has not completely recovered.