Recent Advances in Application of Biosensors in Tissue Engineering
The D-glucose/D-galactose-binding protein (GGBP) of Escherichia coli serves as an initial component for both chemotaxis toward D-galactose and D-glucose and high-affinity active transport of the two sugars. GGBP is a monomer with a molecular weight of about 32 kDa that binds glucose with micromolar affinity. The sugar-binding site is located in the cleft between the two lobes of the bilobate protein. In this work, the local and global structural features of GGBP were investigated by a strategic fluorescence labeling procedure and spectroscopic methodologies. A mutant form of GGBP containing the amino acid substitution Met to Cys at position 182 was realized and fluorescently labeled to probe the effect of glucose binding on the local and overall structural organization of the protein. The labeling of the N-terminus with a fluorescence probe as well as the protein intrinsic fluorescence were also used to obtain a complete picture of the GGBP structure and dynamics. Our results showed that the binding of glucose to GGBP resulted in no stabilizing effect on the N-terminus portion of GGBP and in a moderate stabilization of the protein matrix in the vicinity of the ligand-binding site. On the contrary, it was observed that the binding of glucose has a strong stabilization effect on the C-terminal domain of the GGBP structure.