A species of small antisense RNA in posttranscriptional gene silencing in plants.

  title={A species of small antisense RNA in posttranscriptional gene silencing in plants.},
  author={Andrew Hamilton and David C. Baulcombe},
  volume={286 5441},
Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a nucleotide sequence-specific defense mechanism that can target both cellular and viral mRNAs. Here, three types of transgene-induced PTGS and one example of virus-induced PTGS were analyzed in plants. In each case, antisense RNA complementary to the targeted mRNA was detected. These RNA molecules were of a uniform length, estimated at 25 nucleotides, and their accumulation required either transgene sense transcription or RNA virus replication. Thus… 

Post-transcriptional gene silencing in plants by RNA

This review elaborates the current progress on the understanding of the molecular basis of RNA silencing including a mechanistic link between the regulation of microRNA and RNAsilencing and the practical use ofRNA silencing as a reverse genetics approach in plant functional genomics.

RNA-Mediated RNA Degradation in Transgene- and Virus-Induced Gene Silencing

Doublestranded RNAs were identified to be the triggering structures for the induction of a specific and highly efficient RNA silencing system, in which enzyme complexes facilitate as molecular machines the processing of dsRNA into characteristic small RNA species.

Application of RNA interference in plants.

Molecular aspects and mechanisms of gene silencing in plant were reviewed, its applications were discussed and its mechanisms also protect the organism's genome from transposons, viruses.

Review RNA-mediated gene silencing

Small non-coding RNA molecules demonstrated to be mediators of these silencing phenomena have been shown to mediate a parallel post-transcriptional gene si- lencing (PTGS) mechanism that regulates the expression of developmental genes, although in this latter mecha- nism, rather than being degraded, the translation of target genes is reversed.

Review article Application of RNA interference in plants

Interestingly, mechanisms of gene silencing also protect the organism’s genome from transposons, viruses and its applications were discussed.

Small RNA-Mediated Control of Development in Plants

This chapter reviews studies that uncovered the mode of action of the different classes of small RNAs during the development of plants and describes mechanisms fine tune regulate the expression of genes during development.



Gene silencing in Neurospora crassa requires a protein homologous to RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

The cloning of qde-1, the first cellular component of the gene-silencing mechanism to be isolated, defines a new gene family conserved among different species including plants, animals and fungi, which is similar to an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase found in the tomato.

An RNA-directed nuclease mediates post-transcriptional gene silencing in Drosophila cells

It is shown that ‘loss-of-function’ phenotypes can be created in cultured Drosophila cells by transfection with specific double-stranded RNAs, which coincides with a marked reduction in the level of cognate cellular messenger RNAs.

Role for a bidentate ribonuclease in the initiation step of RNA interference

Dicer is a member of the RNase III family of nucleases that specifically cleave double-stranded RNAs, and is evolutionarily conserved in worms, flies, plants, fungi and mammals, and has a distinctive structure, which includes a helicase domain and dualRNase III motifs.

Inactivation of gene expression in plants as a consequence of specific sequence duplication.

  • R. Flavell
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1994
It is suggested that the mechanisms evolved to help silence the many copies of transposable elements in plants must have evolved to avoid these silencing mechanisms or their consequences.

A similarity between viral defense and gene silencing in plants.

It was found that nepovirus infection of nontransgenic plants induces a resistance mechanism that is similar to transgene-induced gene silencing.

Infection of tobacco or Arabidopsis plants by CMV counteracts systemic post-transcriptional silencing of nonviral (trans)genes.

Models are proposed to explain how CMV can inhibit cellular factors involved in the RNA degradation step of PTGS and/or inhibit the systemic spread of the silencing signal to tissues emerging from the meristem.

Gene Silencing without DNA: RNA-Mediated Cross-Protection between Viruses

Analysis of plants infected with viruses that are quite distinct from the nepovirus or caulimovirus groups demonstrates that this RNA-mediated defense is a general response to virus infection, and provides direct evidence that post-transcriptional gene silencing of nuclear genes is a manifestation of a natural defense mechanism that is induced by a wide range of viruses.