A single g factor is not necessary to simulate positive correlations between cognitive tests

@article{McFarland2012ASG,
  title={A single g factor is not necessary to simulate positive correlations between cognitive tests},
  author={Dennis J. McFarland},
  journal={Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology},
  year={2012},
  volume={34},
  pages={378 - 384}
}
  • D. McFarland
  • Published 2012
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
In the area of abilities testing, one issue of continued dissent is whether abilities are best conceptualized as manifestations of a single underlying general factor or as reflecting the combination of multiple traits that may be dissociable. The fact that diverse cognitive tests tend to be positively correlated has been taken as evidence for a single general ability or “g” factor. In the present study, simulations of test performance were run to evaluate the hypothesis that multiple… Expand

Topics from this paper

Simulating the effects of common and specific abilities on test performance: an evaluation of factor analysis.
  • D. McFarland
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR
  • 2014
TLDR
Inferences from the results of factor analysis should be primarily about the structure of test batteries rather than theructure of human mental abilities, and researchers and clinicians should consider multiple sources of evidence to evaluate hypotheses about the processes generating test results. Expand
Evaluation of multidimensional models of WAIS-IV subtest performance
  • D. McFarland
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The Clinical neuropsychologist
  • 2017
TLDR
These results argue against the contention that clinical interpretation of cognitive test batteries should primarily be at the level of general intelligence and suggest that test validity should not be based solely on the results of modeling the covariance of test batteries. Expand
Modeling Individual Subtests of the WAIS IV with Multiple Latent Factors
TLDR
The view that performance on any given cognitive test is potentially the result of multiple factors is supported and more consideration should be given to models that include multiple uncorrelated latent factors as determinants of the performance on a given subtest. Expand
Process Overlap Theory: A Unified Account of the General Factor of Intelligence
ABSTRACT The most replicated result in the field of intelligence is the positive manifold, which refers to an all-positive pattern of correlations among diverse cognitive tests. The positive manifoldExpand
Factor-Analytic Evidence for the Complexity of the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS)
TLDR
The results show seven-factor solutions based on generalization of fixed weights to validation samples provided best estimates, which are consistent with process overlap theory, which suggest that complex tests are determined my many distinct executive processes. Expand
How neuroscience can inform the study of individual differences in cognitive abilities
  • D. McFarland
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Reviews in the neurosciences
  • 2017
TLDR
Theories of human mental abilities should be consistent with what is known in neuroscience, and psychological processes such as perception, attention, decision, and executive control are emergent properties of interacting distributed networks. Expand
Modeling General and Specific Abilities
TLDR
There is a certain degree of ambiguity in determining the exact amount of covariance in test performance accounted for by general and specific factors, which calls in to question the practice of adjusting or controlling for general abilities when evaluating measures of specific abilities. Expand
A distributed brain network predicts general intelligence from resting-state human neuroimaging data
TLDR
This article used the final release of the Young Adult Human Connectome Project, providing a full hour of resting-state fMRI per subject; controlled for gender, age and brain volume; and derived a reliable estimate of general intelligence from scores on multiple cognitive tasks. Expand
A distributed brain network predicts general intelligence from resting-state human neuroimaging data
TLDR
Using a cross-validated predictive framework, 20% of the variance in general intelligence in the sampled population was predicted from their resting-state connectivity matrices, and no single anatomical structure or network was responsible or necessary for this prediction, which instead relied on redundant information distributed across the brain. Expand
New and emerging models of human intelligence.
TLDR
This article provides an overview of key distinguishing features of these new models of human intelligence proposed in the 21st century and makes novel predictions about the neural correlates of intelligent behavior. Expand
...
1
2
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 34 REFERENCES
Spearman's g: Links Between Psychometrics and Biology
  • A. Jensen
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1993
TLDR
A theory based on empirical evidence links g to neural processes involved in the speed and efficiency of information processing that are profoundly enmeshed with many organismic variables. Expand
Modeling differentiation of cognitive abilities within the higher-order factor model using moderated factor analysis
TLDR
This work investigates the age and ability differentiation hypotheses in a real data set using both a traditional method and the method of moderated factor analysis, and concludes that results concerning the traditional method can be misleading. Expand
The nature of psychometric g: Unitary process or a number of independent processes?
This study investigates whether a unitary elemental process or a number of independent elemental processes, as measured by elementary cognitive tasks (ECTs), underlie psychometric g. A sample of 101Expand
What is a good g
We have examined the stability of psychometric g, the general factor in all mental ability tests or other manifestations of mental ability, when g is extracted from a given correlation matrix byExpand
A dynamical model of general intelligence: the positive manifold of intelligence by mutualism.
TLDR
A new explanation of the positive manifold based on a dynamical model is proposed, in which reciprocal causation or mutualism plays a central role, and it is shown that thepositive manifold emerges purely by positive beneficial interactions between cognitive processes during development. Expand
Performance on tests of frontal lobe function reflect general intellectual ability
TLDR
The results support the claim that many tests of frontal lobe function measure primarily a non-specific intellectual function but also indicate that some tests, like the MCST, may be assessing more specific cognitive operations. Expand
Positive manifold limits the relevance of content-matching strategies for validating selection test batteries.
TLDR
The authors show that conclusions reached in analyses of cognitive tests-that content matching is largely irrelevant to criterion-related validity-can be generalized to most sets of selection tests that are positively correlated with one another and with the criterion. Expand
Three Faces of Factor Analysis
Spearman’s1 basic idea was that the mutual correlation of variables (such as test scores) might be explained by their common dependence on a latent variable, which he called a factor. Such factorsExpand
Survey of opinions on the primacy of g and social consequences of ability testing: A comparison of expert and non-expert views ☆
Abstract The current study examines the views of experts in the science of mental abilities about the primacy and uniqueness of g and the social implications of ability testing, and compares theirExpand
Revisiting the Factor Structure of the WAIS-R
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the WAIS-R can be better conceptualized as measuring a first-order general factor and three orthogonal group-level factors and clinicians should reconsider interpreting a VIQ score that includes information from Arithmetic and Digit Span in nonclinical populations. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...