A simple and valid tool distinguished efficacy from effectiveness studies.

@article{Gartlehner2006ASA,
  title={A simple and valid tool distinguished efficacy from effectiveness studies.},
  author={Gerald Gartlehner and Richard A. Hansen and Daniel B. Nissman and Kathleen N. Lohr and Timothy S. Carey},
  journal={Journal of clinical epidemiology},
  year={2006},
  volume={59 10},
  pages={1040-8}
}
OBJECTIVE To propose and test a simple instrument based on seven criteria of study design to distinguish effectiveness (pragmatic) from efficacy (explanatory) trials. STUDY DESIGN Currently no validated definition of effectiveness studies exists. We asked the directors of 12 Evidence-based Practice Centers to select six studies each: four that they considered to be examples of effectiveness trials and two considered efficacy studies. We then applied our proposed criteria to test the construct… CONTINUE READING

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