A sigma-delta modulation based BIST scheme for mixed-signal circuits
In this work, we present the analysis of a built-in self-test (BIST) scheme for mixed-signal circuits that is intended to provide on-chip stimulus generation and response analysis. Based on the sigma-delta modulation principle, the proposed scheme can produce high-quality stimuli and obtain accurate measurements without the need of precise analog circuitry. Numerical simulations are conducted to validate our idea and the results show that the scheme is a promising BIST approach for mixed-signal circuits. I. INTRODUCTION Testing of analog circuits has been a costly process because of the limited access to the analog parts and expensive automatic test equipment (ATE) required to perform functional testing. The situation has become worse due to the trend of integrating various digital and analog cores onto a single system-on-chip (SOC), in which testing the analog parts becomes the bottleneck of production testing. To resolve the problem, various design for testability (DfT) and BIST approaches for mixed signal systems have been proposed. They either increase the controllability and observ-ability of the circuit under test (CUT) [1, 2] or provide the capability of on-chip stimulus generation and signal analysis [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]. In , the authors present a BIST scheme for a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), gain tracking, and frequency response test of a sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter (ADC); however, the on-chip digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for sine-wave generation, and the digital signal processing unit able to perform the desired analysis are not always available. Implicit functional testing  uses the random patterns from LFSR (usually appears as part of the digital BIST structure) as the test stimuli; however, the on-chip or external DAC and ADC are needed for D/A and A/D conversions. The oscillation BIST scheme in  converts the circuit under test to a circuit that oscillates. However, the BIST circuitry in general cannot be shared among different CUT's. The sigma-delta modulated oscillator in  provides a digital solution to high quality on-chip sinusoidal stimuli. The main disadvantage is the area overhead of the oscillator. The on-chip signal measurement approaches in [6, 8] rely on accurate reference voltages and may suffer from process variations. The proposed BIST scheme in this paper employs the oversampling
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