A short trapezoidal speculum for suprasellar and infrasellar exposure in endonasal transsphenoidal surgery.


OBJECTIVE A key limitation of the transsphenoidal approach for suprasellar and infrasellar lesions is restricted exposure. Microscope and endoscope-assisted procedures have traditionally used an oval-shaped speculum, the distal end of which restricts superior and inferior visualization. To improve visualization and use of the endoscope, shorter specula… (More)
DOI: 10.1227/01.neu.0000326014.99562.25

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