# A short γ-ray burst apparently associated with an elliptical galaxy at redshift z = 0.225

@article{Gehrels2005AS,
title={A short $\gamma$-ray burst apparently associated with an elliptical galaxy at redshift z = 0.225},
author={N. C. Gehrels and Craig L. Sarazin and P. T. O’Brien and B. B. Zhang and Louis M. Barbier and Scott Douglas Barthelmy and A. J. Blustin and David N. Burrows and John K. Cannizzo and Jay R. Cummings and M. R. Goad and Stephen T. Holland and Cheryl Hurkett and Jamie A. Kennea and Andrew J. Levan and Craig B. Markwardt and Keith O. Mason and P. M{\'e}sz{\'a}ros and M J Page and David M. Palmer and Evert Rol and Takanori Sakamoto and Richard Willingale and Leonardo Angelini and Andrew P. Beardmore and Patricia T. Boyd and Alice A. Breeveld and Sergio Campana and Margaret Mcmath Chester and Guido L. Chincarini and Lynn R. Cominsky and G Cusumano and Massimiliano de Pasquale and Edward E. Fenimore and Paolo Giommi and Caryl Gronwall and Dirk Grupe and Joanne E. Hill and Dean Alan Hinshaw and Jens Hjorth and Derek D. Hullinger and Kevin Hurley and S. Klose and S. Kobayashi and Chryssa Kouveliotou and Hans A. Krimm and Valeria Mangano and F. E. Marshall and Katherine E. McGowan and Alberto Moretti and Richard F. Mushotzky and Kazuhiro Nakazawa and Jay Norris and J A Nousek and Julian P. Osborne and Kim L. Page and Ann Marie Parsons and S. K. Patel and Matteo Perri and Tracey Poole and Patrizia Romano and P. W. A. Roming and Simon R. Rosen and Goro Sato and Patricia Schady and Alan P. Smale and Jesper Sollerman and Rhaana L. C. Starling and Martin D. Still and M. Suzuki and Gianpiero Tagliaferri and T. Takahashi and Makoto S. Tashiro and Jack Tueller and Alan A. Wells and Nicholas E. White and R. A. M. J. Wijers},
journal={Nature},
year={2005},
volume={437},
pages={851-854}
}
• Published 31 May 2005
• Physics
• Nature
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) come in two classes: long (> 2 s), soft-spectrum bursts and short, hard events. Most progress has been made on understanding the long GRBs, which are typically observed at high redshift (z ≈ 1) and found in subluminous star-forming host galaxies. They are likely to be produced in core-collapse explosions of massive stars. In contrast, no short GRB had been accurately (< 10″) and rapidly (minutes) located. Here we report the detection of the X-ray afterglow from—and the…
465 Citations

### Discovery of the short γ-ray burst GRB 050709

• Physics
Nature
• 2005
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) fall into two classes: short-hard and long-soft bursts. The latter are now known to have X-ray and optical afterglows, to occur at cosmological distances in star-forming

### An origin for short γ-ray bursts unassociated with current star formation

• Physics
Nature
• 2005
Two short (< 2 s) γ-ray bursts (GRBs) have recently been localized and fading afterglow counterparts detected. The combination of these two results left unclear the nature of the host galaxies of the

### The afterglow and elliptical host galaxy of the short γ-ray burst GRB 050724

• Physics
Nature
• 2005
Despite a rich phenomenology, γ-ray bursts (GRBs) are divided into two classes based on their duration and spectral hardness—the long-soft and the short-hard bursts. The discovery of afterglow

### An origin in the local Universe for some short γ-ray bursts

• Physics
Nature
• 2005
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) divide into two classes: ‘long’, which typically have initial durations of T90 > 2 s, and ‘short’, with durations of T90 < 2 s (where T90 is the time to detect 90% of the

### GRB 060121: implications of a short-/intermediate-duration γ-ray burst at high redshift

• Physics
• 2006
Since the discovery of the first short-population γ-ray burst (GRB) afterglows in 2005, the handful of observed events have been found to be embedded in nearby (z < 1), bright underlying galaxies. We

### Short-Duration Gamma-Ray Bursts

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) display a bimodal duration distribution with a separation between the short- and long-duration bursts at about 2 s. The progenitors of long GRBs have been identified as

### THE LUMINOUS INFRARED HOST GALAXY OF SHORT-DURATION GRB 100206A

• Physics
• 2012
The known host galaxies of short-hard gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to date are characterized by low to moderate star formation rates (SFRs) and a broad range of stellar masses, in general agreement with

### Optical emission from GRB 050709 : a short/hard GRB in a star-forming galaxy

• Physics
• 2005
Optical observations of the short/hard gamma-ray burst GRB 050709 are presented, the first such event with an identified optical counterpart, and it is shown that at least some short GRBs originate in a young population.

### Most Short-Hard Gamma-Ray Bursts Are Not in Moderately Bright Nearby Host Galaxies

The recent discovery by the Swift and HETE-2 satellites of X-ray afterglows from five short-hard bursts (SHBs) has lead to a simple picture in which SHBs have a typical isotropic burst energy of

### Gamma-ray bursts in the Swift era

• Physics
• 2006
Gamma-ray burst (GRB) research has undergone a revolution in the last two years. The launch of Swift, with its rapid slewing capability, has greatly increased the number and quality of GRB

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 39 REFERENCES

### Are the hosts of gamma-ray bursts sub-luminous and blue galaxies?

• Physics
• 2003
We present K-band imaging observations of ten gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies for which an optical and/or radio afterglow associated with the GRB event was clearly identified. Data were obtained

### Closing in on a Short-Hard Burst Progenitor: Constraints from Early-Time Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy of a Possible Host Galaxy of GRB 050509b

• Physics
• 2005
The localization of the short-duration, hard-spectrum gamma-ray burst GRB 050509b by the Swift satellite was a watershed event. We report the discovery of the probable host galaxy, a bright

### Gamma-ray bursts as collimated jets from neutron star/black hole mergers

• Physics
Nature
• 1993
THE distribution of more than 150 γ-ray bursts detected by the BATSE experiment is isotropic on the sky but radially non-uniform1,2. This raises the possibility that bursts are cosmological (at z≲l)

### An exceptionally bright flare from SGR 1806–20 and the origins of short-duration γ-ray bursts

• Physics
Nature
• 2005
Soft-γ-ray repeaters (SGRs) are galactic X-ray stars that emit numerous short-duration (about 0.1 s) bursts of hard X-rays during sporadic active periods. They are thought to be magnetars: strongly

### Observational Prospects for Afterglows of Short-Duration Gamma-Ray Bursts

• Physics
• 2001
If the efficiency for producing gamma rays is the same in short-duration (≲2 s) gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as in long-duration GRBs, then the average kinetic energy per solid angle in short GRBs must be

### An exceptionally bright flare from SGR 1806-20 and the origins of short-duration gamma-ray bursts.

• Physics
Nature
• 2005
The detection of a long giant flare from SGR 1806-20, which was much more luminous than any previous transient event observed in the authors' Galaxy, and at least a significant fraction of the mysterious short-duration gamma-ray bursts may come from extragalactic magnetars.

### BATSE Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst Tails

With the discovery of low-energy radiation appearing to come from the site of gamma-ray bursts in the hours to weeks after the initial burst of gamma rays, it would appear that astronomers have seen

### VLT Spectroscopy of GRB 990510 and GRB 990712: Probing the Faint and Bright Ends of the Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Population

• Physics
• 2001
We present time-resolved optical spectroscopy of the afterglows of the gamma-ray bursts GRB 990510 and GRB 990712. Through the identification of several absorption lines in the first-epoch GRB 990510

### Resolving the Mystery of X-Ray-faint Elliptical Galaxies: Chandra X-Ray Observations of NGC 4697

• Physics
• 1999
Chandra observations of the X-ray-faint elliptical galaxy NGC 4697 resolve much of the X-ray emission (61% within one effective radius) into ~80 point sources, of which most are low-mass X-ray

### The distances of short-hard GRBs and the SGR connection

• Physics
• 2005
We present a search for nearby (D<100 Mpc) galaxies in the error boxes of six well-localized short-hard gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). None of the six error boxes reveals the presence of a plausible nearby