Costunolide is an active sesquiterpene lactone of medicinal herbs with anti-inflammatory and potential anti-cancer activity. Nevertheless, the pharmacological pathways of costunolide have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study we showed that costunolide exerts a dose-dependent antiproliferative activity in the human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. In addition, light microscopy observations indicated that costunolide affected nuclear organization and reorganized microtubule architecture. The antiproliferative and antimicrotubular effects of costunolide were not influenced by paclitaxel, well-known microtubule-stabilizing anticancer agent. The microtubule-interacting activity of costunolide was confirmed by in vitro studies on purified microtubular protein. In fact, costunolide demonstrated polymerizing ability, by inducing the formation of well organized microtubule polymers. Our data suggest an interaction of costunolide with microtubules, which may represent a new intracellular target for this drug.