A sense of self-perceived collective victimhood in intractable conflicts*

  title={A sense of self-perceived collective victimhood in intractable conflicts*},
  author={Daniel Bar-Tal and Lily Chernyak-Hai and Noa Schori and Ayelet Gundar},
  journal={International Review of the Red Cross},
  pages={229 - 258}
Abstract A sense of self-perceived collective victimhood emerges as a major theme in the ethos of conflict of societies involved in intractable conflict and is a fundamental part of the collective memory of the conflict. This sense is defined as a mindset shared by group members that results from a perceived intentional harm with severe consequences, inflicted on the collective by another group. This harm is viewed as undeserved, unjust and immoral, and one that the group could not prevent. The… 

The Social Construction of Victimhood and Complex Victims

The victim label is constructed and applied subjectively and defined within specific socio-structural contexts. In conflict and transition, the archetypal image of the innocent, moral, and deserving

Self-Censorship as a Socio-Psychological Barrier to Peacemaking

Self-censorship is of great importance in societies involved in intractable conflict. In this context, it blocks information that may contradict the dominant conflict-supporting narratives. Thus,

Intergroup struggles over victimhood in violent conflict

Many groups in violent, intergroup conflict perceive themselves to be the primary or sole victims of that conflict. This often results in contention over who may claim victim status and complicates a

From Collective Victimhood to Social Reconciliation: Outlining a Conceptual Framework

In this introductory chapter, the authors review existing work and propose a general conceptual framework to understand the development of collective memories and narratives related to experiences of

Social Representations of the Past in Post-conflict Societies: Adherence to Official Historical Narratives and Distrust Through Heightened Threats

One of the main obstacles to the cultivation of historical thinking, in post-conflict societies, is adherence to the official master narratives of conflict. We argue based on empirical evidence from

Three layers of collective victimhood: effects of multileveled victimhood on intergroup conflicts in the Israeli–Arab context

Perceived collective victimhood plays a significant role in conflictual intergroup relations. We suggest a conceptualization of three different layers of collective victimhood: historical victimhood,

The Victim-Perpetrator Paradigm

This chapter proposes the victim-perpetrator paradigm as a framework to understand contention surrounding victimhood in intergroup conflict. Adversarial groups in conflict employ binary, archetypal

Victimisation-by-ingroup Consciousness: Its Antecedents and Impact on Radicalism

This study proposed victimisation-by-ingroup consciousness as a novel concept, which denotes that intragroup violence or wrongdoings by some group members victimise other members of the same group

Reification of Collective Victimhood: Dalit Narratives, Social Repositioning and Transformation

Contrary to the passivity embedded in the term ‘victim’, collective victimhood experienced by the Dalits is highly active and agentic. Dalits negotiate the meaning of collective victimhood in various

Competition over collective victimhood recognition: When perceived lack of recognition for past victimization is associated with negative attitudes towards another victimized group

Groups that perceive themselves as victims can engage in “competitive victimhood.” We propose that, in some societal circumstances, this competition bears on the recognition of past sufferings—rather



The Role of Victim Beliefs in the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict: Risk or Potential for Peace?

This article discusses the role of victim beliefs in intergroup relations, as well as characteristics of victim beliefs and the processes by which they instigate and sustain violence, focusing on the

Constructing the Victim: Theoretical Reflections and Empirical Examples

This article discusses the social construction of the victim and analyses conditions for ascription of the victim role. As a neutral point of reference a scientific construction of the victim is

Not in My Name: A Social Psychological Study of Antecedents and Consequences of Acknowledgment of In-Group Atrocities

This article is concerned with psychological reactions on the part of Serbian people to atrocities committed by their group. A study conducted in the aftermath of genocidal acts committed in Bosnia


In this article, the authors use the Israeli-Palestinian conflict as an example of ostensibly intractable ethnonational conflict and examine the psychological dynamics that contribute to its

Moral Disengagement in the Perpetration of Inhumanities

  • A. Bandura
  • Psychology
    Personality and social psychology review : an official journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc
  • 1999
Given the many mechanisms for disengaging moral control, civilized life requires, in addition to humane personal standards, safeguards built into social systems that uphold compassionate behavior and renounce cruelty.

Sociopsychological Foundations of Intractable Conflicts

The article presents a conceptual framework that concerns the sociopsychological foundation and dynamics of intractable conflict. First, it defines and characterizes the nature of intractable

“You Should Know Better”: Expressions of Empathy and Disregard Among Victims of Massive Social Trauma

ABSTRACT There is a belief that victims of extreme violence should be sensitive to the suffering of others although most of the psychosocial literature points to the opposite. We examine this belief

Individual‐level and community‐level effects of war trauma on social representations related to humanitarian law

Theoretical and empirical accounts of violent intergroup conflict or reactions to victimization suggested psychosocial processes that are likely to paradoxically enhance war victims' justification of

Rethinking ‘Don't Blame the Victim’

SUMMARY The psychology of victims and the dynamics of victimhood have been largely ignored by scholars and clinicians. While in past years the tendency has been to blame victims, more recently the

The Cyprus Conflict: Root Causes and Implications for Peacebuilding

A survey in 2000—02 in both the Greek- and Turkish-Cypriot communities examines the beliefs about the root causes of the Cyprus conflict, the political culture, social attitudes, and future