A role for hypertrophic astrocytes and astrocyte precursors in a case of rapidly progressive multiple sclerosis

@article{Morcos2003ARF,
  title={A role for hypertrophic astrocytes and astrocyte precursors in a case of rapidly progressive multiple sclerosis},
  author={Yvette Morcos and Sang Min Lee and Michael C Levin},
  journal={Multiple Sclerosis},
  year={2003},
  volume={9},
  pages={332 - 341}
}
The purpose of this study was to examine the roles played by astrocytes in a case of rapidly progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Within early-active and active lesions, hypertrophic astrocytes played an important role in lesion patho logy through the phagocytosis of myelin and axonal debris and through the internalization of other glial cells, including astrocytes. In addition to this critical role, hypertrophic astrocytes, in areas that lack significant inflammation (within the adjacent… 
Myelin phagocytosis by astrocytes after myelin damage promotes lesion pathology
TLDR
The data suggest that myelin uptake is an early response of astrocytes in diseases with prominent myelin injury that results in recruitment of immune cells, and might be of therapeutic relevance in multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating conditions.
Myelination: do astrocytes play a role?
  • S. Barnett, C. Linington
  • Biology
    The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry
  • 2013
TLDR
Astrocytes have long been considered the main player in the inhibition of CNS repair via the formation of the gliotic scar, but now it is accepted that astrocyte can play an important role in CNS repair and remyelination.
Impact of Astrocyte Depletion upon Inflammation and Demyelination in a Murine Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis
TLDR
It is indicated thatAstrocyte depletion in virus triggered CNS diseases contributes to a deterioration of clinical signs that are mediated by a dysfunction of perivascular astrocytes.
Multinucleated astrocytes in old demyelinated plaques in a patient with multiple sclerosis
TLDR
A post‐mortem examination of a 51‐year‐old woman with MS revealed numerous demyelinated plaques that exhibited fibrillary gliosis with Rosenthal fibers, but without lymphocytic cuffing or foamy macrophages, suggesting that mild persistent inflammatory processes are present even in old plaques.
Astrocyte‐associated axonal damage in pre‐onset stages of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
TLDR
Significantly, it is shown that, in common with a growing number of neurodegenerative conditions, the pathology of murine EAE is characterized by early active contribution from astrocytes, which marks a change in the understanding of the role of astroCytes in MS pathogenesis and has important implications for the development of neuroprotective strategies.
Astrocytic phagocytosis contributes to demyelination after focal cortical ischemia in mice
TLDR
It is suggested that LCN2/LRP1 regulates astrocyte-mediated myelin phagocytosis in a mouse model of ischemic stroke.
Pathological Changes of Astrocytes under Seizure
TLDR
An overview of the experimental findings about astrogliosis in seizures, which involves the changes in astrocytic structure and loss of domain, which is paralleled by functional changes, including expression levels of glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase.
Phagocytic properties in tumor astrocytes
  • A. Persson, E. Englund
  • Biology, Medicine
    Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • 2012
TLDR
It is suggested that human astroglial tumor cells may have phagocytic properties or phagocyte‐like properties, likely that these properties substantially help the tumors thrive and expand.
Pathological differences between white and grey matter multiple sclerosis lesions
TLDR
Cellular and molecular characteristics of WM and GM, and local differences within WMLs and GMLs (in particular, in glial cell populations and the molecules they express), determine the pathway to demyelination.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 34 REFERENCES
Multiple sclerosis. Interactions between oligodendrocytes and hypertrophic astrocytes and their occurrence in other, nondemyelinating conditions.
  • E. Wu, C. Raine
  • Medicine, Biology
    Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology
  • 1992
TLDR
The increased frequency of the glial cell phenomenon in active MS lesions, its ubiquity in diseases of different etiologies and the need for careful scrutiny of control central nervous system tissue are underscored.
Occurrence of Oligodendrocytes within Astrocytes in Demyelinating Lesions
  • N. Ghatak
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • 1992
TLDR
The study suggests that this newly recognized interaction between astrocytes and oligodendrocyte is not restricted to acute MS lesions and probably represents emperipolesis rather than phagocytosis.
Multiple Sclerosis: A Role for Astroglia in Active Demyelination Suggested by Class II MHC Expression and Ultrastructural Study
TLDR
A role for the astrocyte as both an antigen presenting cell and a phagocyte in the CNS during multiple sclerosis is confirmed and further support the role of glial cells in the pathogenesis of demyelination.
Interaction of astrocytes and newly formed oligodendrocytes in resolving multiple sclerosis lesions.
TLDR
It is concluded that the evolution of some multiple sclerosis lesions early in the course of the disease is associated with abnormal binding and/or destruction of newly generated oligodendrocytes by reactive astrocyte.
GFAP and Astrogliosis
TLDR
This chapter summaries the various experimental models and diseases that exhibit astrogliosis and increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and recent in vitro studies to inhibit GFAP synthesis are presented.
Interleukin‐1β is Required for the Early Evolution of Reactive Astrogliosis Following CNS Lesion
  • L. Herx, V. Yong
  • Biology
    Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • 2001
TLDR
It is suggested that the rapid production of IL-1β following trauma plays a beneficial role in initiating astrogliosis in an attempt to restore the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and seal off the wound site.
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: GFAP-Thirty-One Years (1969–2000)
TLDR
While the structural function of GFAP has become more acceptable, the use ofGFAP antibodies and promoters continue to be valuable in studying CNS injury, disease, and development.
Astrocytic response to injury.
Vimentin immunoreactivity in normal and pathological human brain tissue
TLDR
In affected areas of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Pick's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis (MS) and cerebral infarction cases, numerous intensely vimentin-immunopositive astrocytes of both protoplasmic and fibrous morphology were demonstrated.
...
...