A role for ghrelin in the central regulation of feeding

  title={A role for ghrelin in the central regulation of feeding},
  author={Masamitsu Nakazato and Noboru Murakami and Yukari Date and Masayasu Kojima and Hisayuki Matsuo and Kenji Kangawa and Shigeru Matsukura},
Ghrelin is an acylated peptide that stimulates the release of growth hormone from the pituitary. Ghrelin-producing neurons are located in the hypothalamus, whereas ghrelin receptors are expressed in various regions of the brain, which is indicative of central—and as yet undefined—physiological functions. Here we show that ghrelin is involved in the hypothalamic regulation of energy homeostasis. Intracerebroventricular injections of ghrelin strongly stimulated feeding in rats and increased body… 
Central and Peripheral Roles of Ghrelin on Glucose Homeostasis
This review focuses on the newly emerging role of ghrelin in glucose homeostasis and exploration of whether gh Relin is a potential therapeutic target for diabetes.
Effects of ghrelin on food intake and neuroendocrine function in sheep.
Ghrelin stimulates GH but not food intake in arcuate nucleus ablated rats.
The primary action of ghrelin on appetite control and GH releasing activity is via the ARC even though it might act on another type of GHS-R besides GHS(1a), and the feeding response to gh Relin requires intact ARC.
Ghrelin-induced food intake is mediated via the orexin pathway.
A novel hypothalamic pathway that links ghrelin and orexin in the regulation of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis is identified.
Ghrelin modulates the activity and synaptic input organization of midbrain dopamine neurons while promoting appetite.
It is shown that in mice and rats, ghrelin bound to neurons of the VTA, where it triggered increased dopamine neuronal activity, synapse formation, and dopamine turnover in the nucleus accumbens in a GHSR-dependent manner, suggesting that the mesolimbic reward circuitry is targeted by peripheral gh Relin to influence physiological mechanisms related to feeding.
The actions of ghrelin in the paraventricular nucleus: energy balance and neuroendocrine implications
The mechanisms of ghrelin actions in the PVN, and its potential implications for energy balance, neuroendocrine, and integrative physiological control are discussed.
Ghrelin: a novel peptide for growth hormone release and feeding regulation
Ghrelin, secreted from the stomach, modulates growth hormone release and feeding promotion and it is possible that ghrelin may participate in the regulation of cell proliferation, glucose homeostasis, and the immune system.
Ghrelin: Neuropeptide Regulator of Metabolism
During calorie restriction, ghrelin increases blood glucose and suppresses glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from the pancreas and this important adaptive mechanism prevents insulin-driven clearance of glucose from the blood during negative energy balance and thus maintains an immediate energy supply.


Hypothalamic CART is a new anorectic peptide regulated by leptin
It is shown that CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript), a brain-located peptide, is a satiety factor and is closely associated with the actions of two important regulators of food intake, leptin and neuropeptide Y.
Identification of targets of leptin action in rat hypothalamus.
The findings suggest that leptin action in rat hypothalamus involves altered expression of key neuropeptide genes, and implicate leptin in the hypothalamic response to fasting.
Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach
The occurrence of ghrelin in both rat and human indicates that GH release from the pituitary may be regulated not only by hypothalamic GHRH, but also by ghrelIn, a peptide specifically releases GH both in vivo and in vitro.
A receptor subtype involved in neuropeptide-Y-induced food intake
The expression cloning of a novel Y-type receptor from rat hypothalamus is reported, which is thought to be the postulated 'feeding' receptor and may provide a new method for the study and treatment of obesity and eating disorders.
Leptin Increases Hypothalamic Pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA Expression in the Rostral Arcuate Nucleus
The finding that leptin reverses this effect in ob/ob, but not db/db, mice suggests that leptin stimulates arcuate nucleus POMC gene expression via a pathway involving leptin receptors, and supports the hypothesis that leptin signaling in the brain involves activation of the hypothalamic melanocortin system.
Coexpression of Leptin Receptor and Preproneuropeptide Y mRNA in Arcuate Nucleus of Mouse Hypothalamus
Dual in situ hybridization studies for leptin receptor and NPY gene expression in the mouse arcuate nucleus are reported, providing the first direct evidence that leptin acts on cells that express NPY mRNA.
Specificity of Leptin Action on Elevated Blood Glucose Levels and Hypothalamic Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in ob/ob Mice
In ob/ob mice, systemic administration of leptin inhibits NPY gene overexpression through a specific action in the arcuate nucleus and exerts a hypoglycemic action that is partly independent of its weight-reducing effects.
The role of neuropeptide Y in the antiobesity action of the obese gene product
RECENTLY Zhang et al.1 cloned a gene that is expressed only in adipose tissue of the mouse. The obese phenotype of theob/ob mouse is linked to a mutation in the obese gene that results in expression
Molecular analysis of rat pituitary and hypothalamic growth hormone secretagogue receptors.
The recent cloning of the GHS-R from human and swine pituitary gland identifies yet a third G protein-coupled receptor (GPC-R) involved in the control of GH release and further supports the existence of an undiscovered hormone that may activate this receptor.