A rock engraving made by Neanderthals in Gibraltar

  title={A rock engraving made by Neanderthals in Gibraltar},
  author={Joaqu{\'i}n Rodr{\'i}guez-Vidal and Francesco d’Errico and Francisco Giles Pacheco and Ruth Blasco and Jordi Rosell and Richard P. Jennings and Alain Queffelec and Geraldine Finlayson and Darren A. Fa and Jose Maria Gutierrez Lopez and Jos{\'e} S. Carri{\'o}n and Juan Jos{\'e} Negro and Stewart Finlayson and Luis Miguel C{\'a}ceres and Marco Antonio Bernal and Santiago Fern{\'a}ndez Jim{\'e}nez and C. Finlayson},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
  pages={13301 - 13306}
Significance The production of purposely made painted or engraved designs on cave walls is recognized as a major cognitive step in human evolution, considered exclusive to modern humans. Here we present the first known example of an abstract pattern engraved by Neanderthals, from Gorham’s Cave in Gibraltar. It consists of a deeply impressed cross-hatching carved into the bedrock of the cave older than 39 cal kyr. The engraving was made before the accumulation of Mousterian layer IV. Most of the… 

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