A robust predominant-F0 estimation method for real-time detection of melody and bass lines in CD recordings


This paper describes a robust method for estimating the fundamental frequency (F0) of melody and bass lines in monaural real-world musical audio signals containing sounds of various instruments. Most previous F0-estimation methods had great difficulty dealing with such complex audio signals because they were designed to deal with mixtures of only a few sounds. To make it possible to estimate the F0 of the melody and bass lines, we propose a predominant-F0 estimation method called PreFEst that does not rely on the F0's unreliable frequency component and obtains the most predominant F0 supported by harmonics within an intentionally limited frequency range. It evaluates the relative dominance of every possible F0 by using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm and considers the temporal continuity of F0s by using a multiple-agent architecture. Experimental results show that our real-time system can detect the melody and bass lines in audio signals sampled from commercially distributed compact discs.

DOI: 10.1109/ICASSP.2000.859070

Extracted Key Phrases

2 Figures and Tables

Showing 1-10 of 12 references

The IF spectrogram: a new spectral representation

  • T Abe
  • 1997

Perceptual grouping of musical sounds: A computational model

  • G J Brown, M Cooke
  • 1994
1 Excerpt

Source separation and note identification in polyphonic music

  • C Chafe, D Jaffe
  • 1986
1 Excerpt
Showing 1-10 of 62 extracted citations


Citations per Year

109 Citations

Semantic Scholar estimates that this publication has received between 71 and 169 citations based on the available data.

See our FAQ for additional information.