A robust data-driven approach identifies four personality types across four large data sets

  title={A robust data-driven approach identifies four personality types across four large data sets},
  author={Martin Gerlach and Beatrice Farb and William Revelle and Lu{\'i}s A. Nunes Amaral},
  journal={Nature Human Behaviour},
Understanding human personality has been a focus for philosophers and scientists for millennia1. [] Key Result The authors identify four different personality types, which surface across data sets.

Commentary: A robust data-driven approach identifies four personality types across four large data sets

An alternative interpretation of Gerlach et al. (2018) result is proposed: a skewed distribution with no cluster structures in personality space can erroneously lead to the seemingly meaningful clusters.

Four personality types may be neither robust nor exhaustive

While it is concur that the authors’ analyses reveal four meaningful clusters in the Johnson-300 data, it is found that only 42% of the sample was associated with those four personality types, and the vast majority of individuals could not be classified within a distinct, meaningful cluster.

Personality types revisited–a literature-informed and data-driven approach to an integration of prototypical and dimensional constructs of personality description

Wether personality types could comprise a bridge between personality and clinical psychology as well as between developmental psychology and resilience research is discussed and reliability and construct validity could be confirmed.

Individual and Group Differences in Multivariate Domains: What Happens When the Number of Traits Increases?

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Establishing the structure and replicability of personality profiles using the HEXACO-PI-R

HEXACO theory along with agency–communion and attachment theories are used along with parameter estimates provided by research to generate and test hypotheses to validate the five-profile structure and evaluate its utility for personality research and other applications.

Personality beyond taxonomy.

A set of causal hypotheses about the role of personality are offered, integrating psychological and neuroscientific approaches to personality in a testable framework, and it is argued that articulating and testing such models will be essential in a mature science of personality.

Using Big Data and Machine Learning in Personality Measurement: Opportunities and Challenges

It is expected that this paper will provide insights, guidance, and inspiration that helps personality researchers navigate the challenges and opportunities posed by using big data methods in personality measurement.

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Open-Source Personality Trait Norms for the United Kingdom and Ireland

Abstract. Most copyrighted personality inventories facilitate norm-referencing through illustrative tables, yet their application to the many fields relevant to personality measurement is constrained



The replicability and utility of three personality types

Personality types are construed as constellations of features that uniquely define discrete groups of individuals. Types are conceptually convenient because they summarize many traits in a single

Resilient, Overcontrolled, and Undercontrolled Boys: Three Replicable Personality Types

Three replicable personality types were identified in a sample of 300 adolescent boys and shown to generalize across African Americans and Caucasians. The types had conceptually coherent relations

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Findings show that in the 2 nations studied here, personality types were highly consistent across gender, age, and time.

An Investigation of Personality Types within the HEXACO Personality Framework

Recent research aimed at identifying distinct personality types has generally searched for such types in the space of the dimensions of the Big Five or Five-Factor model. We extended this search to

An alternative "description of personality": the big-five factor structure.

  • L. R. Goldberg
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1990
The generality of this 5-factor model is here demonstrated across unusually comprehensive sets of trait terms, which suggest their potential utility as Big-Five markers in future studies.

Carving personality description at its joints: Confirmation of three replicable personality prototypes for both children and adults

We tested the hypothesis that there are three major prototypic patterns of personality description (resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled) in a series of studies including adults'

Resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled boys: three replicable personality types.

This research demonstrates that replicable and generalizable personality types can be identified empirically, and that the unique constellation of traits defining an individual has important consequences for a wide range of outcomes.

Regional Personality Differences in Great Britain

Using a sample of nearly 400,000 British residents, this work mapped the geographical distributions of the Big Five Personality traits across 380 Local Authority Districts and examined the associations with important political, economic, social, and health outcomes.

Replicability and 40-year predictive power of childhood ARC types.

Analysis of the teacher personality assessments of over 2,000 children in 1st through 6th grade in 1959-1967 and follow-up data on general and cardiovascular health outcomes in over 1,100 adults recontacted 40 years later found bootstrapped internal replication clustering suggesting that Big Five scores were best characterized by a tripartite cluster structure corresponding to the ARC types.

Personality and Individual Differences: A Natural Science Approach

One: Descriptive.- One The Scientific Description of Personality.- Personality and Taxonomy: The Problem of Classification.- Type and Trait Theories: The Modern View.- Type-Trait Theories and Factor