A risk assessment for lead in birds.

  title={A risk assessment for lead in birds.},
  author={Joanna Burger},
  journal={Journal of toxicology and environmental health},
  volume={45 4},
  • Joanna Burger
  • Published 1995 in Journal of toxicology and environmental health
Ecotoxicologists and ecologists have examined the effects of pollutants on individuals and populations largely in terms of one or only a few effects. Yet the recent trend toward a holistic approach to ecological risk assessment suggests that a rigorous paradigm should be applied to toxicants, from hazard identification to risk characterization. Recent discussions have recognized that an up-front problem formulation phase is more critical in ecological risk assessment than it is for human health… CONTINUE READING

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