A rhodopsin is the functional photoreceptor for phototaxis in the unicellular eukaryote Chlamydomonas

@article{Foster1984ARI,
  title={A rhodopsin is the functional photoreceptor for phototaxis in the unicellular eukaryote Chlamydomonas},
  author={Ken W. Foster and Jureepan Saranak and Nayana Patel and Gerald Zarilli and Masami. Okabe and Toni Kline and Kōji Nakanishi},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1984},
  volume={311},
  pages={756-759}
}
Rhodopsin is a visual pigment ubiquitous in multicellular animals. If visual pigments have a common ancient origin, as is believed, then some unicellular organisms might also use a rhodopsin photoreceptor1,2. We show here that the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas does indeed use a rhodopsin photoreceptor. We incorporated analogues of its retinal chromophore into a blind mutant; normal photobehaviour was restored and the colour of maximum sensitivity was shifted in a manner consistent with the… Expand
Chlamyrhodopsin represents a new type of sensory photoreceptor.
TLDR
An improved strategy for the preparation of eyespot membranes containing a retinal binding protein, which reveals that chlamyopsin is not a typical seven helix receptor and shows some homology to invertebrate opsins but not to opsins from halobacteria. Expand
Identification of a rhodopsin photoreceptor in Euglena gracilis.
Visual pigments are a class of receptor proteins that absorb light and trigger sensory signals. Retinal-containing proteins are used in nature as photoreceptors mainly in animals vision. MammalianExpand
Two rhodopsins mediate phototaxis to low- and high-intensity light in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
TLDR
It is demonstrated that two rhodopsins, identified from cDNA sequences, function as low- and high-light-intensity phototaxis receptors in the eukaryotic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by in vivo analysis of photoreceptor electrical currents and motility responses in transformants with RNA interference directed against each of the r Rhodopsin genes. Expand
ALL‐trans‐RETINAL IS THE CHROMOPHORE BOUND TO THE PHOTORECEPTOR OF THE ALGA: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii *
TLDR
All‐trans‐retinal is the native molecule that is available to be incorporated into the rhodopsin of Chlamydomonas and therefore forms the functioning chromophore on binding, and is identified as the existing retinaloxime isomer. Expand
In vitro identification of rhodopsin in the green alga Chlamydomonas.
TLDR
The in vitro identification of endogenous retinal and a rhodopsin in Chlamydomonas cell extracts and purified membrane preparations is reported and it is concluded that this protein is the visual photoreceptor inChlamyDomonas. Expand
Microbial and Animal Rhodopsins: Structures, Functions, and Molecular Mechanisms
TLDR
Rhodopsins found in Eukaryotes, Bacteria, and Archaea consist of opsin apoproteins and a covalently linked retinal which is employed to absorb photons for energy conversion or the initiation of intra- or intercellular signaling. Expand
The abundant retinal protein of the Chlamydomonas eye is not the photoreceptor for phototaxis and photophobic responses.
TLDR
It is shown that intron-containing gene fragments directly linked to their introns-less antisense counterpart provide efficient post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in C. reinhardtii, thus allowing an efficient reduction of a specific gene product in a green alga. Expand
Photophobic responses and phototaxis in Chlamydomonas are triggered by a single rhodopsin photoreceptor
TLDR
The physiological, electrophysiological and biochemical experiments suggest that all behavioural responses are triggered by a single rhodopsin‐type receptor. Expand
Microbial Sensory Rhodopsins: Photochemistry and Function
The review covers recent progress on microbial sensory rhodopsins, visual pigment-like retinylidene photoreceptors that function in phototaxis by archaeons, such as Halobacterium salinarium, and byExpand
Spectral sensitivity, structure and activation of eukaryotic rhodopsins: activation spectroscopy of rhodopsin analogs in Chlamydomonas.
TLDR
A unique structural model for eukaryotic rhodopsins is defined and the spectral clustering of pigments, the spectral differences between red and green rhodopins and the molecular basis of color blindness are explained. Expand
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