A revised six‐kingdom system of life

@article{Cavaliersmith1998ARS,
  title={A revised six‐kingdom system of life},
  author={T Cavalier-smith},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
  year={1998},
  volume={73}
}
A revised six-kingdom system of life is presented, down to the level of infraphylum. [] Key Result Circumscriptions of the kingdoms Bacteria and Plantae remain unchanged since Cavalier-Smith (1981). The kingdom Fungi is expanded by adding Microsporidia, because of protein sequence evidence that these amitochondrial intracellular parasites are related to conventional Fungi, not Protozoa.
Zooflagellate Phylogeny and the Systematics of Protozoa.
TLDR
The Archezoa are now treated, not as a separate kingdom, but as a subkingdom of the Protozoa, comprising only the two zooflagellate protozoan phyla, Metamonada and Parabasalia, which have no mitochondria and are microaerophilic or anaerobic.
How many kingdoms of life? Eukaryotic phylogeny and philosophy of systematics
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Only six kingdoms of life
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  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2004
TLDR
Critical interpretation of environmental DNA sequences suggests that the overall picture of microbial biodiversity at phylum or division level is already rather good and comprehensive and that there are no uncharacterized kingdoms of life.
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The idea that Fungi form a kingdom distinct from 5 plants and animals became widely accepted only recently, and the organisms traditionally studied by mycologists, and grouped in Whittaker’s kingdom, are polyphyletic.
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Phylogenetic analyses based on single-cell transcriptomic data from two hemimastigotes, a Spironema species and the newly described Hemimastix kukwesjijk, indicate that Hemimastsigophora is a supra-kingdom-level lineage of eukaryotes.
The origin of chloroplasts and the position of eukaryotic algae in the six- kingdom system of life [in Czech]
TLDR
The special interest represents the origin of the chloroplasts, as it was suggested using the molecular methods, the single-celled cyanobacteria were the ancestors of chloroplASTs in glaucophytes, red and green algae.
The Evolutionary Origin of Animals and Fungi
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A new fungal phylum, the Glomeromycota: phylogeny and evolution * * Dedicated to Manfred Kluge (Tech
TLDR
The ecologically and economically important arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, crucial in the ecology and physiology of land plants, and the endocytobiotic fungus, Geosiphon pyriformis, are phylogenetically analysed by their small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences and placed into a new monophyletic phylum, the Glomeromycota.
The Kingdom Fungi: Heterogeneity of Physiological and Biochemical Properties and Relationships with Plants, Animals, and Prokaryotes (Review)
  • E. Feofilova
  • Biology
    Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology
  • 2004
TLDR
The heterogeneity of the Fungi kingdom is emphasized, the existence of Oomycota as a separate entity is supported, and the theory of the primitive nature of fungal cells is criticized from the viewpoint of biochemical adaptation.
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