A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures

@article{Murashige1962ARM,
  title={A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures},
  author={Toshio Murashige and Folke Karl Skoog},
  journal={Physiologia Plantarum},
  year={1962},
  volume={15},
  pages={473-497}
}
48 Metabolic fluctuations in chloroplasts and mitochondria can trigger retrograde signals 49 to modify nuclear gene expression. Mobile signals likely to be involved are reactive oxygen 50 species (ROS), which can operate protein redox switches by oxidation of specific cysteine 51 residues. Redox buffers such as the highly reduced glutathione pool serve as reservoirs of 52 reducing power for several ROS scavenging and ROS-induced damage repair pathways. 53 Formation of glutathione disulfide… 
Chloroplast-derived photo-oxidative stress causes changes in H2O2 and EGSH in other subcellular compartments
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In vivo redox biosensing resolves the spatiotemporal dynamics of compartmental responses to local ROS generation and provide a basis for understanding how compartment-specific redox dynamics may operate in retrograde signaling and stress acclimation in plants.
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It is demonstrated that ADH from A. thaliana is subject to different redox modifications, and binding of ADH with its cofactors may limit availability of Cys residues to redox modification.
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Examples include enhanced methyl viologen (Paraquat)-induced oxidative stress tolerance in Mn-superoxidase dismutase over-expressing plants, improved heavy metal tolerance in glutathione reductase expressing lines, and improved tolerance to UV-B radiation in both sets of plants.
Enhanced Tolerance to Methyl Viologen-Mediated Oxidative Stress via AtGR2 Expression From Chloroplast Genome
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The results indicate that introducing AtGR2 in chloroplasts is an efficient approach to increase stress tolerance and provides evidence that increasing antioxidant enzyme via plastid genome engineering is an alternative to enhance plant’s tolerance to stressful conditions.
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O2 levels in wild-type Arabidopsis plants and a mutant line with impaired fatty acid desaturation suggested that constitutive levels of reporter gene activity were higher in the fad7-1 background than in Col-Luc, and this method was used to establish a suitable method for measuring luminescence generated by the O2 –responsive reporter gene.
Transgenic tobacco plants expressing antisense ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductase transcripts display increased susceptibility to photo-oxidative damage.
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The collected results suggest that the extensive photo-oxidative damage sustained by plants impaired in FNR expression was caused by singlet oxygen building up to toxic levels in these tissues, as a direct consequence of the over-reduction of the electron transport chain in F NR-deficient chloroplasts.
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The data reveal an unexpected role for mitochondrial respiratory flexibility and retrograde signaling in reductive stress tolerance involving inter-organelle redox crosstalk.
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These experiments suggest a subtle interaction of enhanced ROS scavenging and tolerance of chilling stress of enzymes involved in scavenging ROS in transplastomic tobacco lines.
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The results indicate that A. thaliana NDB1 modulates NADP(H) reduction levels, which in turn affect central metabolism and growth, and interact with defense signaling.
A Mediator of Singlet Oxygen Responses in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Arabidopsis Identified by a Luciferase-Based Genetic Screen in Algal Cells[W]
TLDR
The identification of a small zinc finger protein, MBS, that accumulates in distinct cytosolic granules and is required for induction of singlet oxygen–dependent gene expression in Chlamydomonas and Arabidopsis is reported, indicating an important and evolutionarily conserved role of the MBS protein in ROS signaling.
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