A review on epilepsy in the horse and the potential of Ambulatory EEG as a diagnostic tool

  title={A review on epilepsy in the horse and the potential of Ambulatory EEG as a diagnostic tool},
  author={Marleen van der Ree and Inge D. Wijnberg},
  journal={Veterinary Quarterly},
  pages={159 - 167}
Epilepsy in the horse is diagnosed based on clinical signs, but diagnosing can be difficult if a grand mal is not present. The future prospects of the horse and potentially the safety of the owner depend on an accurate diagnosis. This review presents information on epilepsy and focuses on the diagnostic potential of (Ambulatory) electroencephalography ((A) EEG). An epileptic seizure is a brain disorder, which expresses itself as a recurrent episode of involuntary abnormal behaviour. The… 

The applicability of ambulatory electroencephalography (AEEG) in healthy horses and horses with abnormal behaviour or clinical signs of epilepsy

It is concluded that abnormal behaviour can be expressed intermittently, and with the availability of AEEG a useful tool is added to the diagnostic scenario for horses.

Seizures in horses: diagnosis and classification

The use of a standardized classification is described, which could facilitate a logical approach for the clinician to establish a diagnosis, as well as to use a consistent mode of communication in the workup of horses with seizures.

A Review on The Medical Applications of Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • T. Bera
  • Biology, Medicine
    2021 Seventh International conference on Bio Signals, Images, and Instrumentation (ICBSII)
  • 2021
The paper reviews the application of the EEG in medical science and summarises the present status and future possibilities of the electroencephalography technology in neuroscience and neuro-engineering.

Distribution and predictive factors of seizure types in 104 cases.

The majority of the seizures described were focal seizures with or without secondary generalisation, and the clinical presentation was independent of the underlying disease.

Acquired epilepsy in a horse associated with colic surgery

A case of an adult horse showing recurrent focal seizures and neurological deficits indicative of central blindness occurring during an episode of colic which was resolved surgically, then resolved by laparotomy with an uneventful general anaesthesia.

What Do We Know about the Use of EEG Monitoring during Equine Anesthesia: A Review

The physiology of EEG, its use in animals during anesthesia, and specification for horses are introduced, which might significantly increase the quality of anesthesia in humans and animals.

Ganglioglioma of the Right Cerebrothalamus in a 7-Year-Old Quarter Horse Cross Gelding

A 7-year-old Quarter horse cross Paint gelding examined due to recurrent seizure-like episodes of 1-year duration was examined, and the first report of intracranial ganglioglioma in the horse was reported.

Qualitative and quantitative analyses of polysomnographic measurements in foals

The qualitative analyses showed that the brain waves of the foals differ in their morphology from those previously reported for adult horses, and the quantitative data analyses revealed that foals suckle throughout all periods of the day, including night-time.

Specific conventional epileptic crisis

The article focuses on the cases of the seizure, order and behavior during and after the epileptic crisis, the child’s febrile convulsions and recommendations.



Diagnostic validity of electroencephalography in equine intracranial disorders.

Equine EEG was a sensitive tool in the diagnosis of intracranial disorders in horses by comparing clinical, clinicopathologic, and histopathologic findings to EEG findings in 20 horses examined for seizures.

The role of EEG in epilepsy: A critical review

The electroencephalogram of idiopathic generalized epilepsy

Both human and animal data suggest involvement of the thalamus and the cortex in the generation of spike‐wave discharges in IGE, and variations of generalized epileptiform discharges can be useful in diagnostic confirmation.

Factors Related to the Occurrence of Typical Paroxysmal Abnormalities in the EEG Records of Epileptic Patients

The results of the present analysis would not seem to support the common assumption that records obtained while the patient is on medication are less likely to be positive, and instead suggest that the closer the examination to a seizure and/or the higher the seizure frequency, the greater the probability that a record would be positive.

Ambulatory cassette EEG in epilepsy diagnosis.

  • J. Ebersole
  • Medicine
    The Yale journal of biology and medicine
  • 1987
Ambulatory EEG diagnostic yields have been shown to be superior to routine laboratory studies and nearly as good as inpatient telemetry evaluations and the role of cassette recordings in clinical electroencephalography continues to be defined as new applications are established.

Evidence for a neurophysiologic auditory deficit in children with benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes

The results may indicate that patients with BECTS have abnormal processing of auditory information at a sensory level ipsilateral to the hemisphere evoking spikes during sleep, resulting in disruption of the evolution and maintenance of echoic memory traces.

Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the electroencephalogram in normal horses during spontaneous drowsiness and sleep.

The objectives were to develop a noninvasive method of electrode placement for recording the EEG in horses and to establish normal EEG parameters for the various states of vigilance, and Normative data for several states were described and probable benign variants identified.

Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the electroencephalogram in normal horses after sedation.

Electroencephalograms obtained from sedated horses appeared identical whether sedation-induced or naturally occurring, and the startle response and heart block associated with some sedatives may be related to sleep.

Ictal EEG patterns in epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes

The clinical utility of ambulatory cassette EEG

Amb ambulatory EEG monitoring (A/EEG) before intensive monitoring in 33 patients newly referred to an epilepsy center served the purpose of admission as well as intensive monitoring among 25 patients with specifically diagnostic referrals.