A review of why and how we may use beta-blockers in congestive heart failure.


The history of the use of beta-blockers for congestive heart failure, beginning with the innovative seminal study by the Swedish group in 1975 to studies in 1995, is reviewed and shows that almost all trials favored the use of beta-blockers. They tended to demonstrate an increase in ejection fraction, a decrease in left ventricular mass, and in some studies… (More)