A review of virulent Newcastle disease viruses in the United States and the role of wild birds in viral persistence and spread

Abstract

Newcastle disease is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which causes substantial morbidity and mortality events worldwide in poultry. The virus strains can be differentiated as lentogenic, mesogenic, or velogenic based on a mean death time in chicken embryos. Currently, velogenic strains of NDV are not endemic in United States… (More)
DOI: 10.1186/s13567-017-0475-9

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