A review of the literature relating caffeine consumption by women to their risk of reproductive hazards.

@article{Leviton2002ARO,
  title={A review of the literature relating caffeine consumption by women to their risk of reproductive hazards.},
  author={Alan Leviton and Lisa Pilar Cowan},
  journal={Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association},
  year={2002},
  volume={40 9},
  pages={1271-310}
}
From this detailed review of the literature, several conclusions can be drawn: (a) An association between caffeine consumption and a reproductive hazard is more likely to be seen in lower-quality studies than in studies that come closer to approximating the ideal. This is especially evident for "lower" birthweight and congenital anomalies. (b) The association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion may well reflect the Stein-Susser epiphenomenon (women with prominent nausea tend… CONTINUE READING