A review of the evidence supporting melatonin's role as an antioxidant

@article{Reiter1995ARO,
  title={A review of the evidence supporting melatonin's role as an antioxidant},
  author={Russel Joseph Reiter and Daniela Melchiorri and Ewa Sewerynek and Burkhard Poeggeler and Lornell Barlow-Walden and Jih-Ing Chuang and Genaro Gabriel Ortiz and Dar{\'i}o Acu{\~n}a-Castroviejo},
  journal={Journal of Pineal Research},
  year={1995},
  volume={18}
}
Abstract: This survey summarizes the findings, accumulated within the last 2 years, concerning melatonin's role in defending against toxic free radicals. Free radicals are chemical constituents that have an unpaired electron in their outer or‐bital and, because of this feature, are highly reactive. Inspired oxygen, which sustains life, also is harmful because up to 5% of the oxygen (O2) taken in is converted to oxygen‐free radicals. The addition of a single electron to O2 produces the… 
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Oxidative damage in the central nervous system: protection by melatonin
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  • Medicine, Chemistry
    Progress in Neurobiology
  • 1998
TLDR
Melatonin has been shown prophylactically to reduce amyloid beta protein toxicity of Alzheimer's disease, to reduce oxidative damage in several models of Parkinson's disease and to protect against glutamate excitotoxicity.
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TLDR
Besides its ability to abate oxidative damage, other beneficial features of melatonin may be important in combating the signs of aging; these include melatonin’s immune-stimulating function, its sleep-promoting ability, its function as an anti-viral agent, and general protective actions at the cellular level.
Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of melatonin in vitro.
TLDR
The data show that melatonin exerts only limited direct antioxidant activities and serotonin was weakly pro-oxidant in the ferric-bleomycin system and strongly pro-Oxidants in the Fe(3+)-EDTA/H2O-deoxyribose system.
Melatonin and Its Relation to the Immune System and Inflammation
TLDR
Melatonin reduces tissue destruction during inflammatory reactions by a number of means, and by virtue of its ability to directly scavenge toxic free radicals, reduces macromolecular damage in all organs.
Peroxynitrite in airway diseases
TLDR
‘Free radicals’ are molecules with an unpaired electron in the outer orbital and are therefore highly reactive and important in inflammatory processes as a free radical, but possibly also as a messenger molecule.
Melatonin as a hydroxyl radical scavenger
TLDR
It was possible to survey the reactions of melatonin with radiolitically generated 'OH and hydrated electron in deoxygenated water solutions using the pulse-radiolysis methods as the precise tools for studying fast reactions.
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