A review of the effects of uranium and depleted uranium exposure on reproduction and fetal development

@article{Arfsten2001ARO,
  title={A review of the effects of uranium and depleted uranium exposure on reproduction and fetal development},
  author={Darryl P. Arfsten and Kenneth R. Still and Glenn David Ritchie},
  journal={Toxicology and Industrial Health},
  year={2001},
  volume={17},
  pages={180 - 191}
}
Depleted uranium (DU) is used in armor-penetrating munitions, military vehicle armor, and aircraft, ship and missile counterweighting/ballasting, as well as in a number of other military and commercial applications. Recent combat applications of DU alloy [i.e., Persian Gulf War (PGW) and Kosovo peacekeeping objective] resulted in human acute exposure to DU dust, vapor or aerosol, as well as chronic exposure from tissue embedding of DU shrapnel fragments. DU alloy is 99.8% 238Uranium, and emits… 

Tables from this paper

CHAPTER 29 – Depleted Uranium

Neurotoxicity of depleted uranium

This review reports on uranium uses and its published health effects, with a major focus on in vitro and in vivo studies that escalate concerns that exposure to DU might be associated with neurotoxic health sequelae.

Gulf war depleted uranium risks

  • A. Marshall
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
  • 2008
The analysis found that the risks of DU-induced leukemia or birth defects are far too small to result in an observable increase in health effects among exposed veterans or Iraqi civilians, and Veterans and civilians who did not occupy DU-contaminated vehicles are unlikely to have internalized quantities of DU significantly in excess of normal internalization of natural uranium from the environment.

The Chemistry and Toxicology of Depleted Uranium

Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Depleted uranium (DU) is a byproduct of the processes for the enrichment of the naturally occurring 235U isotope. The

Teratogenicity of depleted uranium aerosols: A review from an epidemiological perspective

The human epidemiological evidence is consistent with increased risk of birth defects in offspring of persons exposed to DU, and the possibility that DU is a teratogen is firmly supported.

Engineering solution for Radioactive Waste in IRAQ

Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product of the enrichment of natural uranium for nuclear reactor-grade or nuclear weapons-grade uranium. DU is chemically identical to natural uranium. Depleted uranium

Accumulation and distribution of uranium in rats after implantation with depleted uranium fragments.

It was concluded that kidney and bone are the primary reservoirs for uranium redistributed from intramuscularly embedded fragments, and the accumulations in kidney, bone and many other tissues suggest the potential for unanticipated physiological consequences of chronic exposure to DU.

HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL URANIUM

Any possible direct risk of cancer or other chemicalor radiation-induced health detriments from uranium deposited in the human body is probably less than 0.005% in contrast to an expected indirect risk of 0.2% to 3% through inhaling the radioactive inert gas radon.

Exposure Pathways and Health Effects Associated with Chemical and Radiological Toxicity of Natural Uranium: A Review

Natural uranium exposure derives from the mining, milling, and processing of uranium ore, as well as from ingestion of groundwater that is naturally contaminated with uranium, which results in health effects at or below established exposure standards.
...

References

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Distribution of uranium in rats implanted with depleted uranium pellets.

It is concluded that kidney and bone are the primary reservoirs for uranium redistributed from intramuscularly embedded fragments and the accumulations in brain, lymph nodes, and testicles suggest the potential for unanticipated physiological consequences of exposure to uranium through this route.

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An outline of the metabolic pathways of uranium isotopes and compounds, medical consequences of uranium poisoning, and an evaluation of the therapeutic alternatives in uranium internal contamination is presented.

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The purpose of this work is to present an outline of the metabolic pathways of uranium isotopes and compounds, medical consequences of uranium poisoning, and an evaluation of the therapeutic

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