A review of the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic organisms and analysis of uncertainty factors for use in risk assessment.

@article{Heugens2001ARO,
  title={A review of the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic organisms and analysis of uncertainty factors for use in risk assessment.},
  author={Evelyn H W Heugens and Angelique W. C. J. Hendriks and Thomas W. G. Dekker and Nico M van Straalen and Wim Admiraal},
  journal={Critical reviews in toxicology},
  year={2001},
  volume={31 3},
  pages={247-84}
}
Risk assessment procedures use toxicity tests in which organisms are subjected to chemicals under otherwise constant and favorable experimental conditions. Because variable and suboptimal environmental conditions are common aspects of natural ecosystems, the hazard of underestimation of risk arises. Therefore, an uncertainty factor is used in the extrapolation of results of standard toxicity tests to field situations. The choice for these uncertainty factors is based on little ecological… CONTINUE READING
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