A review of the direct and indirect effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on vertebrate wildlife

@inproceedings{Gibbons2015ARO,
  title={A review of the direct and indirect effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on vertebrate wildlife},
  author={David Wingfield Gibbons and Christy A. Morrissey and Pierre Mineau},
  booktitle={Environmental science and pollution research international},
  year={2015}
}
Concerns over the role of pesticides affecting vertebrate wildlife populations have recently focussed on systemic products which exert broad-spectrum toxicity. Given that the neonicotinoids have become the fastest-growing class of insecticides globally, we review here 150 studies of their direct (toxic) and indirect (e.g. food chain) effects on vertebrate wildlife--mammals, birds, fish, amphibians and reptiles. We focus on two neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and clothianidin, and a third… CONTINUE READING
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