A review of the clinical efficacy of evening primrose.

@article{Stonemetz2008ARO,
  title={A review of the clinical efficacy of evening primrose.},
  author={Diane Stonemetz},
  journal={Holistic nursing practice},
  year={2008},
  volume={22 3},
  pages={
          171-4
        }
}
The oil obtained from the evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) plant is usually taken orally in a gel cap form. This herbal supplement is most commonly used for the treatment of mastalgia and atopic dermatitis. While recommending this supplement to patients for many years for the treatment of mastalgia, this author was interested in researching the plant and the evidence supporting its use for this complaint and its other potential uses. The oil is rich in omega-6 fatty acids, which are… 
Evening primrose oil reducing serum lithium concentration
TLDR
Evening primrose oil (EPO), Oenothera biennis, is available over-the-counter (OTC) for treating a range of conditions and its omega-6 essential fatty acid ingredients are precursors to prostaglandins, the well-known anti-inflammatory mediators.
Therapeutic Efficacy of Urtica dioica and Evening Primrose in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
TLDR
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Effect of Evening Primrose Oil and Vitamin B6 on Pain Control of Cyclic Mastalgia Associated with Fibrocystic Breast Changes: A Triple-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial
TLDR
Vitamin B6 and EPO have the same therapeutic effects in the treatment of cyclic mastalgia and because of the low cost and more availability of vitamin B6 compared to EPO, it can be used in the first line of treatment.
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TLDR
It is indicated that EPO consumption had no impact on the quality of life in general; however, it had a significant effect on several important aspects of life quality such as the increase of cognitive function, vitality, and overall life satisfaction.
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TLDR
Oral evening primrose can be used as a simple and safe potential adjunctive treatment for postoperative pain control after appendectomy, and both VAS and McGill pain intensity scores significantly decreased after intervention.
Non-pharmacological treatment of premenstrual syndrome
TLDR
The non-pharmacologic therapeutic approaches advocated for the treatment of PMS will be briefly reviewed to assess the side-effects of pharmacological interventions.
Clinical effectiveness of vitamin E and vitamin B6 for improving pain severity in cyclic mastalgia
TLDR
Both regimens containing vitamin E and vitamin B6 are similar in reducing breast pain severity in cyclic mastalgia, and by multivariable linear regression analysis adjusted for baseline variables, it is found that both the treatment regimens resulted in similar reduction in breastPain severity.
Effect of oral evening primrose capsules on ripening of the cervix in nulliparous Iranian pregnant women (A randomized trial)
Introduction: Ripening of the cervix and uterine contractions are two basic factors of a successful delivery. Lack of ripening of the cervix is considered to be one of the problems of delivery. Thus,
Role of Vitamin E in Improving Pain Severity in Cyclical Mastalgia in Adolescent Women : Aprospective Study
TLDR
From the results of this study,imens containing vitamin E has an excellent improvement in reducing breast pain severity in cyclic mastalgia.
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References

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TLDR
Oil extracted from seeds of the evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) contains linoleic acid, (gamma) linolenic Acid, and vitamin E, which is said to be the constituent of the oil responsible for its therapeutic effects.
Evening primrose oil for atopic dermatitis
TLDR
It is found that the largest and best reported studies did not show convincing evidence of any benefit in atopic dermatitis treatments, and one “unturned stone” has been the notion that GLA works only when given in very high doses.
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TLDR
Five common herbs are reviewed and the effects, clinical studies, side effects, and dosing regimens for aloe vera, arnica, black cohosh, evening primrose oil, and saw palmetto are described.
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TLDR
Neither evening primrose oil nor fish oil offered clear benefit over control oils in the treatment of mastalgia, and all groups showed a decrease in pain.
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