A review of the clinical efficacy of evening primrose.

  title={A review of the clinical efficacy of evening primrose.},
  author={Diane Stonemetz},
  journal={Holistic nursing practice},
  volume={22 3},
The oil obtained from the evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) plant is usually taken orally in a gel cap form. This herbal supplement is most commonly used for the treatment of mastalgia and atopic dermatitis. While recommending this supplement to patients for many years for the treatment of mastalgia, this author was interested in researching the plant and the evidence supporting its use for this complaint and its other potential uses. The oil is rich in omega-6 fatty acids, which are… 
Evening primrose oil reducing serum lithium concentration
Evening primrose oil (EPO), Oenothera biennis, is available over-the-counter (OTC) for treating a range of conditions and its omega-6 essential fatty acid ingredients are precursors to prostaglandins, the well-known anti-inflammatory mediators.
Therapeutic Efficacy of Urtica dioica and Evening Primrose in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
EpO and Urtica dioica have great potential as a complementary therapy in RA patients and appeared to decrease inflammatory factors, and can improve the symptoms of RA.
Effect of Evening Primrose Oil and Vitamin B6 on Pain Control of Cyclic Mastalgia Associated with Fibrocystic Breast Changes: A Triple-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial
Vitamin B6 and EPO have the same therapeutic effects in the treatment of cyclic mastalgia and because of the low cost and more availability of vitamin B6 compared to EPO, it can be used in the first line of treatment.
The effect of evening primrose oil on fatigue and quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis
It is indicated that EPO consumption had no impact on the quality of life in general; however, it had a significant effect on several important aspects of life quality such as the increase of cognitive function, vitality, and overall life satisfaction.
Effect of evening primrose oil on postoperative pain after appendectomy: A double-blind, randomized, clinical trial
Oral evening primrose can be used as a simple and safe potential adjunctive treatment for postoperative pain control after appendectomy, and both VAS and McGill pain intensity scores significantly decreased after intervention.
Non-pharmacological treatment of premenstrual syndrome
The non-pharmacologic therapeutic approaches advocated for the treatment of PMS will be briefly reviewed to assess the side-effects of pharmacological interventions.
Clinical effectiveness of vitamin E and vitamin B6 for improving pain severity in cyclic mastalgia
Both regimens containing vitamin E and vitamin B6 are similar in reducing breast pain severity in cyclic mastalgia, and by multivariable linear regression analysis adjusted for baseline variables, it is found that both the treatment regimens resulted in similar reduction in breastPain severity.
Effect of oral evening primrose capsules on ripening of the cervix in nulliparous Iranian pregnant women (A randomized trial)
Introduction: Ripening of the cervix and uterine contractions are two basic factors of a successful delivery. Lack of ripening of the cervix is considered to be one of the problems of delivery. Thus,
Role of Vitamin E in Improving Pain Severity in Cyclical Mastalgia in Adolescent Women : Aprospective Study
From the results of this study,imens containing vitamin E has an excellent improvement in reducing breast pain severity in cyclic mastalgia.


Evening primrose oil
Oil extracted from seeds of the evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) contains linoleic acid, (gamma) linolenic Acid, and vitamin E, which is said to be the constituent of the oil responsible for its therapeutic effects.
Evening primrose oil for atopic dermatitis
It is found that the largest and best reported studies did not show convincing evidence of any benefit in atopic dermatitis treatments, and one “unturned stone” has been the notion that GLA works only when given in very high doses.
Therapeutic use of selected herbs.
Five common herbs are reviewed and the effects, clinical studies, side effects, and dosing regimens for aloe vera, arnica, black cohosh, evening primrose oil, and saw palmetto are described.
Evening primrose oil and fish oil for severe chronic mastalgia: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.
Neither evening primrose oil nor fish oil offered clear benefit over control oils in the treatment of mastalgia, and all groups showed a decrease in pain.
Botanicals and dietary supplements in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
BACKGROUND Many persons use botanicals and dietary supplements for chronic conditions that do not respond to traditional Western medications. Tricyclic antidepressants, a common treatment option for
Selected CAM Therapies for Arthritis-Related Pain: The Evidence From Systematic Reviews
  • K. Soeken
  • Medicine
    The Clinical journal of pain
  • 2004
Evidence exists to support the efficacy of reducing pain from osteoarthritis for acupuncture; devil's claw, avocado/soybean unsaponifiables, Phytodolor and capsaicin; and chondroitin, glucosamine, and SAMe.
The premenstrual syndrome.
  • R. Reid, S. Yen
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Clinical obstetrics and gynecology
  • 1983
The reversible "medical ovariectomy" attained with this agonist suggests that it may be an effective and rational treatment for this distressing syndrome in the short term.
Effect of Supplementation with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Micronutrients on Learning and Behavior Problems Associated with Child ADHD
  • N. Sinn, J. Bryan
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP
  • 2007
These results add to preliminary findings that ADHD-related problems with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity might respond to treatment with PUFAs and that improvements may continue with supplementation extending to 30 weeks.
Evening Primrose Oil and Fish Oil Used for Mastalgia
  • Austin, TX: American Botanical Council;
  • 2003