A review of the adaptive significance and ecosystem consequences of zooplankton diel vertical migrations

  title={A review of the adaptive significance and ecosystem consequences of zooplankton diel vertical migrations},
  author={Graeme C. Hays},
  • G. Hays
  • Published 1 August 2003
  • Environmental Science
  • Hydrobiologia
Diel vertical migration (DVM) by zooplankton is a universal feature in all the World's oceans, as well as being common in freshwater environments. The normal pattern involves movement from shallow depths at night to greater depths during the day. For many herbivorous and omnivorous mesozooplankton that feed predominantly near the surface on phytoplankton and microzooplankton, minimising the risk of predation from fish seems to be the ultimate factor behind DVM. These migrants appear to use deep… 
Plankton vertical migrations - Implications for the pelagic ecosystem
The analyses showed that the gelatinous green algae Planktosphaeria gelatinosa was the main species influencing phytoplankton dynamics in the experiment, and therefore the effects of Daphnia DVM were highly species specific.
Hunt warm, rest cool: bioenergetic strategy underlying diel vertical migration of a benthic shark.
These results provide the first clear evidence that are consistent with the hypothesis that a benthic marine-fish predator utilizes DVM as an energy conservation strategy that increases bioenergetic efficiency.
Arctic complexity: a case study on diel vertical migration of zooplankton
It is concluded that a continued warming of the Arctic is likely to result in more complex ecotones across the Arctic marine system, where zooplankton form multiple aggregations through the water column seen via acoustics as distinct SSLs.
Diel vertical migration and central place foraging in benthic predators
Diel vertical migration (DVM) is a widespread behaviour among many pelagic species, from zooplankton to sharks and has been widely studied in both marine and freshwater environments. Usually, DVM
Daphnia diel vertical migration : implications beyond zooplankton
The results show that DVM had significant quantitative and qualitative effects on the phytoplankton community, and the gelatinous green alga Planktosphaeria gelatinosa, was the dominant algal species in the authors' experiment.
Evaluation of Mysis partial diel vertical migration
Mass animal migrations represent large movements of biomass, energy, and nutrients with predictable patterns and important ecosystem-level consequences. Diel vertical migration (DVM) in aquatic
Diel vertical migration of freshwater fishes – proximate triggers, ultimate causes and research perspectives
It is suggested that migrating populations should split into migrants and non-migrants for whom the balance between mortality risk and growth rate can differ, and there is increasing evidence for this type of partial DVM within populations.
Differences in the trophic ecology of micronekton driven by diel vertical migration
Analysis of bulk tissue and whole animal stable nitrogen isotopic compositions of micronekton species collected seasonally between 0 and 1250 m depth confirms that stark differences in the food habits and dietary sources of micronesia species are driven by vertical migrations.
Diel vertical migration of adult burbot: a dynamic trade-off among feeding opportunity, predation avoidance, and bioenergetic gain
The results, which showed elevated nightly activity and a seasonal size-structured depth distribution during DVMs, suggest these migrations likely provide a feeding opportunity “window” for this nocturnal predator, constrained by predation or cannibalism threat.
A zooplankton diel vertical migration parameterization for coastal marine ecosystem modeling
Abstract. A simple parameterization of zooplankton vertical swimming is proposed as a way to reproduce the diel vertical migration (DVM) behavior, which refers to the daily descent of aquatic


The adaptive significance of diel vertical migrations
The focus of most research on vertical migration has shifted from the environmental control towards the search for ultimate reasons and the relative change of light intensity has been found to be the proximate cue that controls the upwards and downwards movements.
Induced vertical migration in copepods as a defence against invertebrate predation
The results show that crustacean zooplankton may be capable of flexible, predator-sensitive foraging and suggest a mechanism for rapid changes in migration patterns.
Diel dive depth in penguins in relation to diel vertical migration of prey: whose dinner by candlelight?
Foraging success in penguins reduced at night and dive depth limited exclusively by ambient light levels is found, inconsistent with the hypothesis that many pelagic species minimize predation through diel vertical migrations.
Zooplanktivorous fish and variable diel vertical migration in the marine planktonic copepod Calanus pacificus
It is proposed that the timing and magnitude of changes in the migration behavior of C. pacificus in Dabob Bay are directly linked to the year-class strengths of the dominant species of planktivorous fish.
Diel vertical migration of zooplankton: optimum migrating schedule based on energy accumulation
A simple optimization model demonstrates that such coexistence of the two migrating behaviors is possible in natural Daphnia populations, and suggests that internal conditions of zooplankton individuals may be important as a factor for determining migrating behavior of zoops.
The photobehaviour of Daphnia spp. as a model to explain diel vertical migration in zooplankton
DVM in a lake takes place during a period of 1‐5‐2 h when light changes are higher than the rheobase threshold, and at high fish predator densities, thus high kairomone concentrations, DVM is profitable but not so at low concentrations.
Trade-offs in diel vertical migration by zooplankton: The costs of predator avoidance
Differences in mean ambient temperature between Daphnia that performed DVM and nonmigrating animals were found to have a much stronger impact on life history parameters than food effects, which supports the view that vertical gradients are more important than food gradients.
Light-induced migration behaviour ofDaphniamodified by food and predator kairomones
This work studied downward swimming of D. galeataxhyalina in response to stepwise accelerations of relative increases in the intensity of light at several food and fish kairomone concentrations, and found two clones showed a particularly significant difference in migration behaviour.
Diurnal vertical migration: Adaptive significance and timing. Part 1. Selective advantage: A metabolic model1
An unexpected prediction of this approach is that if maximizing net energetic gain is of greater selective importance than avoidance of visually orienting predators, grazers ought to migrate upward and begin feeding well before sunset, rather than after as the predation hypothesis presumes.
Demographic Strategy of Vertical Migration by a Marine Copepod
  • I. McLAREN
  • Environmental Science
    The American Naturalist
  • 1974
The conclusions are sufficiently general to imply that vertical migration in thermally stratified waters confers a demographic advantage to individuals of this copepod and other zooplankters in which size and fecundity are negative functions of temperature.