A review of paradoxical performance effects: Choking under pressure in sports and mental tests

  title={A review of paradoxical performance effects: Choking under pressure in sports and mental tests},
  author={Roy F. Baumeister and Carolin J. Showers},
  journal={European Journal of Social Psychology},
Paradoxical performance effects (‘choking under pressure’) are defined as the occurrence of inferior performance despite striving and incentives for superior performance. Experimental demonstrations of these effects on tasks analogous to athletic performance and the theories that may explain them are reviewed. At present, attentional theories seem to offer the most complete explanation of the processes underlying paradoxical performance effects. In particular, choking may result from… 

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  • 2009
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  • R. Baumeister
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1984
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