A review of linear response theory for general differentiable dynamical systems

  title={A review of linear response theory for general differentiable dynamical systems},
  author={David Ruelle},
  • D. Ruelle
  • Published 5 January 2009
  • Physics
  • Nonlinearity
The classical theory of linear response applies to statistical mechanics close to equilibrium. Away from equilibrium, one may describe the microscopic time evolution by a general differentiable dynamical system, identify nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) and study how these vary under perturbations of the dynamics. Remarkably, it turns out that for uniformly hyperbolic dynamical systems (those satisfying the 'chaotic hypothesis'), the linear response away from equilibrium is very similar to… 
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