A review of North Atlantic modes of natural variability and their driving mechanisms

@article{Grossmann2009ARO,
  title={A review of North Atlantic modes of natural variability and their driving mechanisms},
  author={Iris Grossmann and Philip J. Klotzbach},
  journal={Journal of Geophysical Research},
  year={2009},
  volume={114}
}
[1] This paper reviews three modes of natural variability that have been identified in the North Atlantic Ocean, namely, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM). This manuscript focuses on the multidecadal fluctuations of these three modes. A range of different mechanisms to initiate phase reversals in these modes on multidecadal timescales has been suggested previously. We propose a systematic grouping of these… Expand

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