A reversible wet/dry adhesive inspired by mussels and geckos

  title={A reversible wet/dry adhesive inspired by mussels and geckos},
  author={Haeshin Lee and Bruce P. Lee and Phillip B. Messersmith},
The adhesive strategy of the gecko relies on foot pads composed of specialized keratinous foot-hairs called setae, which are subdivided into terminal spatulae of approximately 200 nm (ref. 1). Contact between the gecko foot and an opposing surface generates adhesive forces that are sufficient to allow the gecko to cling onto vertical and even inverted surfaces. Although strong, the adhesion is temporary, permitting rapid detachment and reattachment of the gecko foot during locomotion… 

Stick or Slip: Adhesive Performance of Geckos and Gecko-inspired Synthetics in Wet Environments.

What the authors know about gecko adhesion in wet environments is detailed, the necessary next steps in biological and synthetic system investigations are outlined, and how much water do geckos encounter in their native environment, and what is their corresponding behavioral response are outlined.

A wet-tolerant adhesive patch inspired by protuberances in suction cups of octopi

An artificial, biologically inspired, reversible wet/dry adhesion system that is based on the dome-like protuberances found in the suction cups of octopi, based on a simple, solution-based, air-trap technique.

Biomimetic Bidirectional Switchable Adhesive Inspired by the Gecko

The gecko adhesive system has attracted significant attention since the discovery that van der Waals interactions, which are always present between surfaces, are predominantly responsible for their

Gecko‐Inspired Polymer Adhesives

The discovery of the gecko’s remarkable foot adhesion has provided a riddle for engineers and scientists to solve: how can an adhesive surface be selectively sticky, directional, remain clean, and

Wet Performance of Biomimetic Fibrillar Adhesives

This review chapter summarizes recent efforts in adapting or combining features of multiple biological adhesive strategies to develop biomimetic systems with enhanced wet adhesive performance.

Natural Adhesion System Leads to Synthetic Adhesives

Nature has developed multi-functional geometric structures, and surface textures with excellent tribological characteristics, such as feet of geckos. Geckos have extraordinary abilities to climb

Bridging nanocontacts to macroscale gecko adhesion by sliding soft lamellar skin supported setal array

The role of the soft lamellar skin in gecko toe adhesion was experimentally revealed and a hybrid three-legged spring/setae clamp was developed to transfer a horizontally placed silicon wafer, indicating the importance of integration and optimization of nanoscale structures as well as the incorporation of their unique, size-dependent properties into functional macroscale devices.

Layered structure and complex mechanochemistry of a strong bacterial adhesive

Atomic force microscopy is used to unravel the complex structure of the holdfast and characterize its chemical constituents and their role in adhesion, suggesting that holdfast matures structurally, becoming more homogeneous over time.

Recent approaches in designing bioadhesive materials inspired by mussel adhesive protein

Recent findings on the contributions of various features of Mfps on interfacial binding, which include coacervate formation, surface drying properties, control of the oxidation state of catechol, among other features are reviewed.



A batch fabricated biomimetic dry adhesive

The fine hair adhesive system found in nature is capable of reversibly adhering to just about any surface. This dry adhesive, best demonstrated in the pad of the gecko, makes use of a multilevel

Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair

A prototype of such 'gecko tape' is reported on, made by microfabrication of dense arrays of flexible plastic pillars, the geometry of which is optimized to ensure their collective adhesion.

Adhesive force of a single gecko foot-hair

The first direct measurements of single setal force are reported by using a two-dimensional micro-electro-mechanical systems force sensor and a wire as a force gauge and revealed that a seta is ten times more effective at adhesion than predicted from maximal estimates on whole animals.

Evidence for van der Waals adhesion in gecko setae

  • K. AutumnM. Sitti R. Full
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2002
This work provides the first direct experimental evidence for dry adhesion of gecko setae by van der Waals forces, and suggests a possible design principle underlying the repeated, convergent evolution of dry adhesive microstructures in gecko, anoles, skinks, and insects.

Synthetic gecko foot-hair micro/nano-structures as dry adhesives

This paper proposes techniques to fabricate synthetic gecko foot-hairs as dry adhesives for future wall-climbing and surgical robots, and models for understanding the synthetic hair design issues.

Single-molecule mechanics of mussel adhesion

A single-molecule study of the substrate and oxidation-dependent adhesive properties of dopa is reported, in which dopa exploits a remarkable combination of high strength and chemical multifunctionality to accomplish adhesion to substrates of widely varying composition.

Resolving the nanoscale adhesion of individual gecko spatulae by atomic force microscopy

The first successful experiments in which the force–displacement curves were determined for individual spatulae by atomic force microscopy are reported, which sheds new light on the nanomechanisms of attachment and will help in the rational design of artificial attachment systems.