A repeated dose comparison of three benzodiazepine derivatives (nitrazepam, flurazepam and flunitrazepam) on subjective appraisals of sleep and measures of psychomotor performance the morning following night‐time medication

  title={A repeated dose comparison of three benzodiazepine derivatives (nitrazepam, flurazepam and flunitrazepam) on subjective appraisals of sleep and measures of psychomotor performance the morning following night‐time medication},
  author={Ian Hindmarch},
  journal={Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica},
  • I. Hindmarch
  • Published 1 November 1977
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Repeated doses of 5 mg nitrazepam, 15 mg flurazepam, and 1 mg flunitrazepam improved subjective assessments of the ease of getting to sleep and the perceived quality of induced sleep in a population of 30 healthy volunteers. The subjective reports of improved sleep inducement were related to a perceived difficulty in awakening from sleep the morning following medication. This subjectively reported “hangover” is also shown in the impairment of mental arithmetic abilities as measured on the… 

The effects of clobazam and lorazepam on aspects of psychomotor performance and car handling ability.

The results taken as a whole show important differences between the 1,4 benzodiazepine, lorazepam, and the 2,5 benzodiazine, clobazam, in their effects on the integrity of psychomotor performance related to car driving ability.

Comparison of hangover effects among triazolam, flunitrazepam and quazepam in healthy subjects: A preliminary report

Subjective hangover effects assessed by SSS and SEQ in the morning were prominent for flunitrazepam and quazepam relative to triazolam, whereas objective indices such as MSLT or activity counts obtained in actigraphy indicated a marked hangover effect of quazEPam compared with the other two compounds restrictively in the afternoon, which were nearly in accordance with their pharmacokinetic profiles.

The effects of lormetazepam on aspects of sleep and early morning performance

Lormetazepam 2 mg significantly improved sleep induction and sleep quality scores without impairing the ease of waking and the integrity of early morning behaviour.

Some aspects of the effects of clobazam on human psychomotor performance.

  • I. Hindmarch
  • Psychology
    British journal of clinical pharmacology
  • 1979
Clobazam seems to differ significantly from the 1,4-benzodiazepines in that, although it reduces anxiety, it does so without any apparent impairment of psychomotor performance.

The effects of lormetazepam on aspects of memory, sleep and human performance

The effects of lormetazepam 1 mg, 1·5 mg, 2 mg, a verum—triazolam 0·5 mg and placebo were examined in ten normal female volunteers, on tests of psychomotor function, performance and analogue rating

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This study conclusively established that flurazepam affects the EEG-EOG architecture of sleep on each of the first two nights of administration.

Mood and performance of poor sleepers during repeated use of flurazepam

Flurazepam had no significant effect on mood or feelings of sleepiness in the morning or at bedtime despite subjective ratings of a ‘more restful’ and ‘better’ sleep and improved sleep latencies.

Loprazolam (HR158) and flurazepam with ethanol compared on tests of psychomotor ability

Subjective evaluations of the ease of getting to sleep and the perceived quality of sleep were improved by both drugs in conjunction with ethanol, however, flurazepam with ethanol produced a greater impairment of subjects' ratings of early morning behaviour than either loprazolam or placebo taken with ethanol.

A Double-blind, Placebo- and Flurazepam-controlled Investigation of the Residual Psychomotor and Cognitive Effects of Modified Release Zolpidem in Young Healthy Volunteers

The study showed the good tolerance of zolpidem-MR in terms of residual neuropsychological effects as well as a beneficial effect on sleep quality in young healthy adults.

Sedative-hypnotics and human performance

Although long-acting drugs generally showed more performance decrement, half-life data were not consistent, and, in comparing active drug to placebo, it is clear that all hypnotics, at some doses, produce decrements in performance the next day.



A repeated dose comparison of dichloralphenazone, flunitrazepam and amylobarbitone sodium on some aspects of sleep and early morning behaviour in normal subjects.

There was a disturbance of the subjective ratings of getting to sleep following cessation of treatment with dichloralphenazone, giving tentative support to the existence of a 'rebound' effect.

A sub-chronic study of the subjective quality of sleep and psychological measures of performance on the morning following night time medication with temazepam.

A clear dose-response relationship was seen in the subjective and objective measurements with the three doses used, and a rebound phenomenon was seen only at the high dose levels in two subjective measures, viz. getting to sleep and behaviour following waking.

A 1,4-benzodiazepine, temazepam (K 3917), its effect on some psychological parameters of sleep and behaviour.

Temazepam showed very much the same effects as they are known from conventional 1,4-benzodiazepines except for its lack of impairment in early morning behavior following night time medication.


It is argued that such euphoriant side effects should be further investigated as they can occur when hypnotics are administered on a long‐term nightly basis, and there may therefore be a dependency aspect for patients who habitually take such hypnotic drugs.

Effect of flurazepam on sleep in the laboratory.

A new hypnotic drug, flurazepam, was given to six healthy young men in a blind trial involving sleep on four consecutive nights in the laboratory and permitted sleep which was objectively better and subjectively as good as the best sleep without the drug.

Persistent Behaviour and Electroencephalographic Changes after Single Doses of Nitrazepam and Amylobarbitone Sodium

In a double-blind cross-over trial the effects of nitrazepam (5 and 10 mg.), amylobarbitone sodium (100 and 200 mg.), and placebo were compared in normal healthy young people, and E.G. fast activity was more plentiful after drugs in either dosage than with placebo.

Immediate effects on human performance of a 1,5-genzodiazepine (clobazam) compared with the 1,4-benzodiazepines, chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride and diazepam.

It is evident that the nature and persistence of impaired performance and the ability to appreciate impaired performance vary considerably between the benzodiazepines, and that the choice of a Benzodiazepine should include careful consideration of performance sequelae.

Effects of Hypnotics on Anxious Patients

The Effects of Psychotropic Drugs upon Driving-Related Skills

The results of studies of the effects of barbiturate and non-barbiturate hypnotics, tranquillizers, and antidepressants upon sensory functions and perceptual skills, cognitive skills, and motor skills are reviewed.