A re-evaluation of the premaxillary bone in humans

  title={A re-evaluation of the premaxillary bone in humans},
  author={Klaus J. Barteczko and Monika Jacob},
  journal={Anatomy and Embryology},
The discovery of the premaxillary bone (os incisivum, os intermaxillare or premaxilla) in humans has been attributed to Goethe, and it has also been named os Goethei. However, Broussonet (1779) and Vicq d’Azyr (1780) came to the same result with different methods. The first anatomists described this medial part of the upper jaw as a separate bone in the vertebrate skull, and, as we know, Coiter (1573) was the first to present an illustration of the sutura incisiva in the human. This fact, and… 
The human premaxilla and Goethe
A review of publications about the premaxilla is carried out and it is observed that the midface and upper lips of Mephistopheles and Martha were retracted and the lower lip protruded like that of a cleft palate patient in the first edition of Faust.
Relationship of Premaxillary Bone and Its Sutures to Deciduous Dentition in Nonhuman Primates
  • K. Carmody, M. Mooney, T. Smith
  • Medicine, Biology
    The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association
  • 2008
Bone cell distribution patterns in perinatal nonhuman primates resemble those described for the prenatal human Pmx, suggesting that differences among species relate to magnitude rather than the pattern of osteogenesis.
Premaxilla: an independent bone that can base therapeutics for middle third growth!
ABSTRACT Premaxilla, in its early descriptions, had the participation of Goethe. In our face, in a certain period of growth and development processes, premaxilla is an independent and, then, a
Premaxilla: up to which age it remains separated from the maxilla by a suture, how often it occurs in children and adults, and possible clinical and therapeutic implications: Study of 1,138 human skulls
The premaxilla exists in an independent way within the maxillary complex and the presence of the premaxillary-maxillary suture justifies the success of anteroposterior expansions to stimulate the growth of the middle third of the face, solving anatomical and functional problems.
Topographical variations of the incisive canal and nasopalatine duct in human fetuses
Examination of sagittal and frontal sections from 69 fetuses showed that the canal often penetrated the IN at the nasal half of its course and that, in other fetuses, the canal penetrated the In along its entire course, irrespective of involvement of the nasopalatine duct.
Anatomical and immunohistochemical analyses of the fusion of the premaxillary-maxillary suture in human fetuses.
  • Ling Zhu, Wenhua Ruan, Wu-Qun Han, W. Gu
  • Medicine
    Journal of orofacial orthopedics = Fortschritte der Kieferorthopadie : Organ/official journal Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Kieferorthopadie
  • 2022
Premature fusion of the PMS in the labial region during the human fetal period may be associated with maxillary deficiency, which is related to a class III malocclusion.
Origin of the Deciduous Upper Lateral Incisor and its Clinical Aspects
The origin of the deciduous upper lateral incisor (i2) in normal human embryos at prenatal weeks 6–8 is investigated using serial frontal histological sections and computer-aided 3D reconstructions.
Developmental field reassignment in unilateral cleft lip: Reconstruction of the premaxilla
Applications of neuromeric anatomy provide a potential unleashes pathologic processes that predictably alter the embryonic “map” of all craniofacial structures with original embryonic anatomy over time to produce what important implications for diagnosis and surgery.
Asyndromic Supernumerary Maxillary Lateral Incisor - Case Series
Tooth size was reduced In Involved side (SMLI) with statistical significance, suggesting a shared genetic balls, and local aetio loglcal factors.
An osteological assessment of cyclopia by micro-CT scanning
This study supports the suggestion that the malformations of the visceral bones are secondary to defective development of the presphenoid and mesethmoid cartilages and leads to non-laterality of facial features.


The premaxilla in Neandertal and early modern children: ontogeny and morphology.
Persistence of an open premaxillary suture represents the potential for an extended period of growth of the Neandertal mid-face and the two interincisive sinuses could be a consequence of the labio-lingual diameter of the incisors.
[The growth of the maxilla in humans. What place for the premaxilla?].
INTRODUCTION The growth of the maxilla in man is still debated. Many authors described an anterior part of the maxillary bone, called premaxilla distinct from the maxilla proper. This description
[Vesalius' Fabrica and the anatomy of the masticatory system].
  • C. Gysel
  • Medicine
    Verhandelingen - Koninklijke Academie voor Geneeskunde van Belgie
  • 1993
In this Tabulae sex, Vesalius does not dare contradict Galenus views too definitely: in the upper jaw he counts fifteen bones amongst which the Os intermaxillare, and two bones in the Mandibula. In
IV. The formation and early growth of the bones of the human face
  • G. Callender
  • Medicine
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London
  • 1869
Observations respecting the formation and growth of the bones of the human face, as well as some of my experiences as differ from the commonly received statements, are proposed to supply information regarding some few points with which the authors are as yet imperfectly acquainted.
The origin and development of the upper lateral incisor and premaxilla in normal and cleft lip/palate monkeys induced with cyclophosphamide.
  • X. Wei, C. Senders, A. Hendrickx
  • Medicine
    The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association
  • 2000
Understanding the origin of the lateral incisor (the tooth closest to the cleft) and the shift after its formation provides clues to high incidence of malformations and ectopia of this incisors in cleft patients.
Location of alveolar clefts relative to the incisive fissure.
  • J. Lisson, I. Kjaer
  • Medicine
    The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association
  • 1997
The location of anterior palatal clefting in CLP patients follows the original course of the epithelial fusion between the palatal shelves and the premaxillary mucosa found in the region of the lateral incisors.
Incisive suture (fissure) in the human fetus: radiographic and histologic study.
  • C. Vacher, M. Sakka, M. Dauge
  • Medicine
    The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association
  • 2001
This particular suture, whose function in growth of the palatal process of the maxilla is discussed, could represent the phylogenetic vestige of the incisive-maxillary suture present in all nonhuman mammals.
Cranio-facial skeletal development in three human synophthalmic holoprosencephalic fetuses.
[Growth and morphogenesis of the craniofacial bones. Applications in orthodontics. The concepts of J. Delaire].
The present report about J. Delaire's lecture summarizes his approach to the nature and physiology of the membranous sutures, the "neural" and "adaptive" growth of the cranial base, the “central” and “cortical” development of the maxillary, and the architectural balance of the Craniofacial set.
The premaxilla: Embryological evidence that it does not exist in man
Many accounts of the human premaxilla describe its ossification centers and time of fusion with the maxilla, but that such a bone even exists in the human has long been questioned. Very few specimens