A re-assessment of the oldest therapsid Raranimus confirms its status as a basal member of the clade and fills Olson's gap.

  title={A re-assessment of the oldest therapsid Raranimus confirms its status as a basal member of the clade and fills Olson's gap.},
  author={A Duhamel and Julien Benoit and Bruce S. Rubidge and J. Liu},
  journal={Die Naturwissenschaften},
  volume={108 4},
The non-mammalian therapsids comprise a paraphyletic assemblage of Permian-Jurassic synapsids closely related to mammals that includes six major clades of largely unresolved phylogenetic affinity. Understanding the early evolutionary radiation of therapsids is complicated by a gap in the fossil record during the Roadian (middle Permian) known as Olson's gap. Because of its early stratigraphic occurrence and its primitive features, Raranimus dashankouensis, from the Dashankou fauna (Rodian… 
The rostral neurovascular system of Tyrannosaurus rex
The study of the rostral neurovascular system using CT scanning has shed new light on phylogenetic and palaeobiological reconstructions of many extinct tetrapods. This research shows a detailed


New Basal Synapsid Supports Laurasian Origin for Therapsids
A new large predatory synapsid, Raranimus dashankouensis gen. et sp.
Re-evaluation of the historic Canadian fossil Bathygnathus borealis from the Early Permian of Prince Edward Island
The holotype and only known specimen of Bathygnathus borealis is a partial snout with maxillary dentition of a presumed sphenacodontid from the Lower Permian (Artinskian 283–290 Ma) redbeds of Prince
The most basal anomodont therapsid and the primacy of Gondwana in the evolution of the anomodonts
The basal position of Anomocephalus, together with its South African occurrence, strongly supports the postulate that a Gondwanan distribution was ancestral for anomodonts.
The origin and early radiation of the therapsid mammal‐like reptiles: a palaeobiological hypothesis
  • T. Kemp
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Journal of evolutionary biology
  • 2006
An hypothesis is presented in which the origin of the therapsids resulted from a correlated progression of character evolution leading to higher levels of metabolic activity and homeostatic regulation of the body.
Abstract:  The oldest records of mammal‐like therapsids in Laurasia are from the Ocher Complex of Russia and the Xidagou Formation of China, whereas in Gondwana they are restricted to the Eodicynodon
Reassessment of the Morphology and Paleobiology of the Therocephalian Tetracynodon Darti (Therapsida), And The Phylogenetic Relationships of Baurioidea
The brain is strikingly plesiomorphic in many features, but generally shows features that are intermediate between gorgonopsians and cynodonts, thus clarifying this stage of the evolution of the synapsid brain.
Ngwevu intloko: a new early sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic Elliot Formation of South Africa and comments on cranial ontogeny in Massospondylus carinatus
Ngwevu intloko, a new genus of upper Elliot basal sauropodomorph is named on the basis of a complete skull and partial skeleton previously assigned to Massospondylus carinatus, which reveals that BP/1/4779 had nearly reached adult size at the time of its death at a minimum age of 10 years.
Novel Endocranial Data on the Early Therocephalian Lycosuchus vanderrieti Underpin High Character Variability in Early Theriodont Evolution
A redescription of the skull of the early therocephalian Lycosuchus based on a specimen from the middle Permian Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone of the South African Karoo Basin provides new insights into patterns of tooth replacement in lycosuchids, which have proven controversial for this taxon.
A New Specimen of Promoschorhynchus (Therapsida: Therocephalia: Akidnognathidae) from the Lower Triassic of South Africa and its Implications for Theriodont Survivorship Across the Permo-Triassic Boundary
ABSTRACT The anatomy of a new subadult specimen of eutherocephalian therapsid, attributed to Promoschorhynchus cf. P. platyrhinus, is described from lowermost Triassic Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone
The last “pelycosaur”: a varanopid synapsid from the Pristerognathus Assemblage Zone, Middle Permian of South Africa
We report on a partial varanopid skull and mandible from the Pristerognathus Assemblage Zone of the Beaufort Group, in the South African Karoo Basin, which is probably latest Middle Permian