A randomized controlled trial of early dietary supply of long‐chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and mental development in term infants

  title={A randomized controlled trial of early dietary supply of long‐chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and mental development in term infants},
  author={Eileen E Birch and Sharon Garfield and Dennis R. Hoffman and Ricardo Uauy and David G. Birch},
  journal={Developmental Medicine \& Child Neurology},
The effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supply during infancy on later cognitive development of healthy term infants were evaluated in a randomized clinical trial of infant formula milk supplemented with 0.35% DHA or with 0.36% DHA and 0.72% arachidonic acid (AA), or control formula which provided no DHA or AA. Fifty‐six 18‐month‐old children (26 male, 30 female) who were enrolled in the trial within the first 5 days of life and fed the assigned diet to 17 weeks of age were tested… 
Growth and development in preterm infants fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: a prospective, randomized controlled trial.
These results showed a benefit of supplementing formulas for premature infants with AA and DHA from either a fish/fungal or an egg-TG/fish source from the time of first enteral feeding to 12 months' CA.
Impact of Early Dietary Intake and Blood Lipid Composition of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Later Visual Development
It is demonstrated that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of formula in term infants produces blood lipid fatty acid profiles that are similar to those observed in breast-fed infants.
Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation in Infancy Reduces Heart Rate and Positively Affects Distribution of Attention
A double-blind, randomized, controlled, parallel-group prospective trial was conducted to determine whether a dose-response existed for four different levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on the cognitive performance of infants, and the distribution of time that infants spent in different phases of attention varied as a function of dosage.
A randomized controlled trial of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of formula in term infants after weaning at 6 wk of age.
The results suggest that the critical period during which the dietary supply of LCPs can influence the maturation of cortical function extends beyond 6 wk of age.
Visual maturation of term infants fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented or control formula for 12 mo.
LCP supplementation of term infant formula during the first year of life yields clear differences in visual function and in total red blood cell lipid composition, as evaluated in a large cohort of infants.
Role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in neurodevelopment and growth.
New research is focused on the timing and dose of DHA supplementation needed to optimize developmental outcomes, which may be explained by the fact that DHA accretion to neural tissues peaks during the fetal brain growth spurt in the last trimester of pregnancy.
The Influence of Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid, Docosahexaenoic Acid, on Child Behavioral Functioning: A Review of Randomized Controlled Trials of DHA Supplementation in Pregnancy, the Neonatal Period and Infancy
There was limited evidence that DHA supplementation had any effect on behavioral development, although two of the largest trials with behavioral measures detected adverse effects.
Roles of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Term Infant: Developmental Benefits
Research suggests that DHA intake and status have a significant impact on visual and cognitive development in breastfed infants, and several expert groups recommend that infant formulas be supplemented with DHA and ARA.
Effects of long-chain PUFA supplementation in infant formula on cognitive function in later childhood.
Children who received LC-PUFAs were faster at processing information compared with children who received unsupplemented formula, and IQ scores of children who were fed a formula containing either LC- PUFAs or no LC-FUFAs did not differ at age 6 y.
Soy-Based Infant Formula Supplemented with DHA and ARA Supports Growth and Increases Circulating Levels of these Fatty Acids in Infants
Feeding healthy term infants soy-based formula supplemented with DHA and ARA from single cell oil sources at concentrations similar to human milk significantly increased circulating levels of DHAand ARA when compared with the control group.


Formula Supplementation With Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Are There Developmental Benefits?
Developmental outcomes of children who participated in an augmented randomized clinical trial of supplementing a standard infant formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids were evaluated and it is believed that additional research should be undertaken before the introduction of these supplements into standard infant formulas.
Visual Acuity, Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Composition, and Growth in Term Infants Fed Formulas with Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids for One Year
There were no differences in growth or in visual function during the first year of formula feeding in the 134 formula-fed and 63 breast-fed infants studied.
Visual Acuity and the Essentiality of Docosahexaenoic Acid and Arachidonic Acid in the Diet of Term Infants
Early dietary intake of preformed DHA and AA appears necessary for optimal development of the brain and eye of the human infant.
Essentiality of dietary omega 3 fatty acids for premature infants: plasma and red blood cell fatty acid composition.
The results support the essentiality of omega-3 fatty acids for preterm infants to obtain fatty acid profiles comparable to infants receiving human milk and should be supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids including LCP.
Arachidonic acid status correlates with first year growth in preterm infants.
It is hypothesized that dietary Ach could improve first year growth of preterm infants and contribute to growth over the first year of life on the strength of the relationship between Ach status and growth.
Mother's choice to provide breast milk and developmental outcome.
Babies whose mothers chose to provide milk had an 8 point advantage in mean Bayley mental developmental index over infants of mothers choosing not to do so, and this significant residual developmental advantage relates to parental factors or to a beneficial effect of human milk itself on brain development.
Sources of human psychological differences: the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart.
Evidence for the strong heritability of most psychological traits, sensibly construed, does not detract from the value or importance of parenting, education, and other propaedeutic interventions.
Criteria for monocular acuity deficit in infancy and early childhood.
  • E. BirchL. Hale
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • 1988
Intersubject variability was lower for interocular grating acuity differences and for test-retest differences, leading to higher sensitivity of these criteria for monocular grates acuity deficit.
reciprocal systems, co- and contra-variant components, orthogonal curvilinear systems. Matrix theory: Gauss-Jordan elimination, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, quadratic and canonical forms.