A randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trial of oral procyanidin with vitamins A, C, E for melasma among Filipino women

  title={A randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trial of oral procyanidin with vitamins A, C, E for melasma among Filipino women},
  author={Evangeline B. Handog and Dulce Amor Vivan F Galang and Maria Azirrel de Leon-Godinez and G P Chan},
  journal={International Journal of Dermatology},
Background  Melasma is a common, acquired, symmetric hypermelanosis characterized by irregular brown to gray–brown macules on the cheeks, forehead, nasal bridge, cutaneous part of the upper lip, mandible, and the upper arms. Few trials have been conducted regarding the potential benefits of oral procyanidin in melasma. 
Comparing the efficacy of Myjet‐assisted tranexamic acid and vitamin C in treating melasma: A split‐face controlled trial
Melasma is a benign and chronic hypermelanosis characterized by irregular light brown to dark brown patches of hyperpigmentation on the skin. Oral tranexamic acid (TA) or vitamin C (VC)
Melasma and Vitiligo: Novel and Experimental Therapies
An intrauterine levonorgestrel-releasing device may be safer than oral contraceptives when melasma is concerned and incorporates a prevention strategy that includes sun avoidance, a broad spectrum sunscreen, discontinuation of oral contraceptives, avoidance of contact allergens and sensitizers, and minimization of heat and friction in the skin.
Medical Management of Melasma: A Review with Consensus Recommendations by Indian Pigmentary Expert Group
The article discusses available evidence and brings forward a suggested treatment algorithm by experts from Pigmentary Disorders Society (PDS) in a collaborative discussion called South Asian pigmentary Forum (SPF).
Advances in the Treatment of Melasma: A Review of the Recent Literature
  • K. Arefiev, B. Hantash
  • Medicine
    Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • 2012
Although melasma is difficult to treat, novel therapeutic modalities have emerged and further RCT need to be performed to better assess the safety and efficacy of these novel treatment modalities, especially for the long‐term maintenance of melasma.
Melasma: Treatment strategy
Melasma, a hypermelanosis of the face, is a common skin problem of middle-aged women of all racial groups, especially with dark complexion, and genetic influences, exposure to sunlight, pregnancy, oral contraceptives, estrogen-progesterone therapies, thyroid dysfunction, cosmetics, and drugs have been proposed.
Treatment of melasma: a review of less commonly used antioxidants
Vitamin E, niacinamide, polypodium leucotomos, pycnogenol, grape seed extract, amino fruit acids, phytic acid, zinc, silymarin, Korean red ginseng powder, plant extracts, and parsley all have well‐demonstrated evidence of antioxidant properties, and these substances have been studied in the context of skin hyperpigmentation.
A Clinical, Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Trial Comparing the Efficacy of a Combination vs. Control as anOral Intervention for Chloasma
The combination of collagen peptide, soy peptide and an aqueous extract of Chrysanthemum morifolium has been proven to have antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activity in vitro and in an animal model and was effective in reducing the hyperpigmentation of subjects with chloasma.
Systemic treatments for melasma: adjuvant therapy with a novel topical agent
The epidemiological characteristics of Malassezia folliculitis and use of the May-Grunwald-Giemsa stain to diagnose the infection and a new contrast stain for the rapid diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor are described.
Rationale of using hypopigmenting drugs and their clinical application in melasma
Among the pigmentary disorders, melasma is the prototype disorder characterized by hyperpigmentation, and there is a need for alternatives to hydroquinone as the drug has restrictions on its widespread use.


Usefulness of retinoic acid in the treatment of melasma.
Treatment of melasma.
Effects of combination treatment with vitamins E and C on chloasma and pigmented contact dermatitis. A double blind controlled clinical trial.
Objective data compiled from color difference measurements and color photographs revealed significantly better results with combination treatment in chloasma than vitamin C alone and, in PCD, than vitamin E or C alone.
Oral intake of proanthocyanidin‐rich extract from grape seeds improves chloasma
GSE is effective in reducing the hyperpigmentation of women with chloasma and the latter GSE intake for 5 months may preventChloasma from becoming worse prior to the summer season.
Chemical and instrumental approaches to treat hyperpigmentation.
This review describes the different approaches to obtain depigmentation, suggests a classification of whitening molecules on the basis of the mechanism by which they interfere with melanogenesis, and confirms the necessity to apply standardized protocols to evaluate depigmenting treatments.
Lightening effect on ultraviolet-induced pigmentation of guinea pig skin by oral administration of a proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds.
It is demonstrated that oral administration of GSE is effective in lightening the UV-induced pigmentation of guinea pig skin, which may be related to the inhibition of melanin synthesis by tyrosinase in melanocytes and the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related proliferation of melanocytes.
Vitamins E and C are safe across a broad range of intakes.
Clinical trial evidence is concluded that vitamin E supplements appear safe for most adults in amounts </=1600 IU (1073 mg RRR-alpha-tocopherol or the molar equivalent of its esters) and that vitamin C supplements of </=2000 mg/d are safe forMost adults.