A question of belonging: race, social fit, and achievement.

@article{Walton2007AQO,
  title={A question of belonging: race, social fit, and achievement.},
  author={Gregory M. Walton and Geoffrey L. Cohen},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={2007},
  volume={92 1},
  pages={
          82-96
        }
}
Stigmatization can give rise to belonging uncertainty. In this state, people are sensitive to information diagnostic of the quality of their social connections. Two experiments tested how belonging uncertainty undermines the motivation and achievement of people whose group is negatively characterized in academic settings. In Experiment 1, students were led to believe that they might have few friends in an intellectual domain. Whereas White students were unaffected, Black students (stigmatized… 

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