A protonmotive force drives bacterial flagella.

@article{Manson1977APF,
  title={A protonmotive force drives bacterial flagella.},
  author={M. Manson and P. Tedesco and H. Berg and F. Harold and C. van der Drift},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  year={1977},
  volume={74 7},
  pages={
          3060-4
        }
}
Streptococcus strain V4051 is motile in the presence of glucose. The cells move steadily along smooth paths (run), jump about briefly with little net displacement (twiddle), and then run in new directions. They stop swimming when deprived of glucose. These cells become motile when an electrical potential or a pH gradient is imposed across the membrane. Starved cells suspended in a potassium-free medium respond to the addition of valinomycin by a brief period of vigorous twiddling. They also… Expand
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