In light of recent, strong inverse findings between lifetime red wine consumption and prostate cancer among younger men, we revisited our previous cohort analysis to more thoroughly investigate red wine consumption and prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). In 1986, HPFS participants reported their average consumption of red wine, white wine, beer and liquor during the past year, and their change in alcohol consumption over the prior 10 years. Prostate cancer diagnoses were ascertained on each biennial questionnaire and confirmed by medical record review. Between 1986 and 2002, 3,348 cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed among 45,433 eligible participants. Using men who did not consume red wine as the reference, no linear trend was observed between red wine consumption and prostate cancer in the full analytic cohort (p-trend = 0.57). Among men with unchanged alcohol consumption in the prior 10 years, and those additionally <65 years of age, slightly lower risks were observed for men who consumed <or=4 glasses of red wine/week, whereas null or slight increased risks were observed for men who consumed >4 glasses/week, resulting in a lack of linear trend. These findings suggest that red wine does not contribute appreciably to the etiology of prostate cancer.