A practical overview of tizanidine use for spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis, stroke, and spinal cord injury

@article{Kamen2008APO,
  title={A practical overview of tizanidine use for spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis, stroke, and spinal cord injury},
  author={Leonard B. Kamen and Herbert R. Henney and Jacob D. Runyan},
  journal={Current Medical Research and Opinion},
  year={2008},
  volume={24},
  pages={425 - 439}
}
ABSTRACT Objective: Tizanidine is an imidazoline central α2-adrenoceptor agonist widely used to manage spasticity secondary to conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS), stroke, and spinal cord injury (SCI). While there is widespread use of tizanidine in clinical practice, little practical information is available to assist prescribers with the effective use of tizanidine for spasticity management. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview of tizanidine and its use in the… 
Pharmacological management of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: Systematic review and consensus paper
TLDR
The available studies on spasticity treatment offer some insight to guide clinical practice but are of variable methodological quality and large, well-designed trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of antispasticity agents and to produce evidence-based treatment algorithms.
Limited Utility for Benzodiazepines in Chronic Pain Management: A Narrative Review
TLDR
BZRAs are often used inappropriately in pain management and should be limited to a narrow range of conditions, including physiologic dependence which develops in 20–100% of those who take these agents for more than a month.
Antispasmodics and Muscle Relaxants
TLDR
Most guidelines and current evidence support short-term use for all medications discussed in this chapter, and there is no clear evidence to show superiority of one muscle relaxant over another in managing acute low back pain.
Management Strategies for Spinal Cord Injury Pain Updated for the Twenty-First Century.
  • E. ShawM. Saulino
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Physical medicine and rehabilitation clinics of North America
  • 2020
Rehabilitation Medicine Management of Spasticity
Spasticity is a poorly recognized but common symptom, present in a wide range of neurological conditions. It can have a major impact on those affected, much of which is potentially preventable. This
Tizanidine and tizanidine hydrochloride: on the correct tautomeric form of tizanidine.
TLDR
The present structure determination corrects the structure determination of tizanidine by John et al.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 93 REFERENCES
Efficacy and safety of tizanidine in the treatment of spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury. North American Tizanidine Study Group.
TLDR
It was concluded that, overall, tizanidine is effective in reducing spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury.
Tizanidine treatment of spasticity: a meta-analysis of controlled, double-blind, comparative studies with baclofen and diazepam.
TLDR
Within the limits of these comparisons, tizanidine, baclofen, and diazepam were equally effective in decreasing excessive muscle tone in patients with multiple sclerosis or cerebrovascular lesions.
Tizanidine. A review of its pharmacology, clinical efficacy and tolerability in the management of spasticity associated with cerebral and spinal disorders.
TLDR
Tizanidine is an antispastic agent with similar efficacy to that of baclofen and a more favourable tolerability profile and, while drowsiness is a frequently reported adverse effect with both agents, subjective muscle weakness appears to be less of a problem with tIZanidine than with bacl ofen.
The treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a double‐blind clinical trial of a new anti‐spastic drug tizanidine * compared with baclofen
TLDR
It is underscored that neither baclofen nor tizanidine are ideal antispastic drugs, and emphasize the need for further research.
A double-blind, long-term study of tizanidine ('Sirdalud') in spasticity due to cerebrovascular lesions.
TLDR
A double-blind study was carried out in 30 patients suffering from spasticity due to cerebrovascular lesions to compare the long-term efficacy and tolerability of tizanidine hydrochloride with that of baclofen, and both drugs were assessed as effective and fairly well tolerated in theLong-term.
Comparative profile of tizanidine in the management of spasticity
TLDR
Tizanidine emerges from this comparison as a valuable drug in the treatment of spasticity related to cerebral and spinal disorders as well as the efficacy and tolerability of baclofen and diazepam.
A multi-centre, double-blind trial of tizanidine, a new antispastic agent, in spasticity associated with hemiplegia.
TLDR
Tizanidine is an effective and well-tolerated drug in the treatment of cerebral spasticity and there were fewer discontinuations of treatment in the tIZanidine group as a result of side-effects.
Prevalence and treatment of spasticity reported by multiple sclerosis patients
TLDR
In the focused survey, ITBG reported lower levels of spasticity than ORALG, less stiffness in the legs, less pain and fewer spasms at any time, which can significantly impact QOL parameters by reducing spasms, pain and fatigue.
Open-Label Dose-Titration Safety and Efficacy Study of Tizanidine Hydrochloride in the Treatment of Spasticity Associated With Chronic Stroke
TLDR
Overall, the data suggest that tizanidine is safe and efficacious in the treatment of stroke-related spasticity, preserving muscle strength while reducing muscle tone and painful spasms in affected patients.
Tizanidine treatment of spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis: Results of a double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trial
TLDR
Patient and physician perception of improvement demonstrated more consistent differences between groups than did the Ashworth Scale, perhaps because of inexperience with this measure or failure to consider time between drug administration and assessment.
...
...