Based on the following genetical experiments, the cya gene in E. coli was shown to be involved in the synthesis of both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. First, all five independent cya-deficient mutants accumulated exceedingly low amounts of cyclic GMP. Second, the ability to form both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP was simultaneously restored by transduction of an intact cya locus to one of the above cya-deficient mutants. Third, a spontaneous revertant from one of the above mutants regained the synthetic activity for cyclic GMP as well as for cyclic AMP. Fourth, the characteristic of a strain overproducing cyclic GMP was co-transduced with the cya locus. These results suggest that the synthesis of both cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP is mediated by the same enzyme, adenylate cyclase, Interestingly, a reciprocal effect of glucose starvation was observed on the accumulation of both cyclic nucleotides. The formation of cyclic AMP was greatly enhanced on glucose starvation, whereas that of cyclic GMP proceeded at a slower rate than in the presence of glucose. This effect was observed only in cells carrying normal cya and crp genes, but not in a cya-altered or a crp-deficient strain.