A possible alarm substance in the forced swimming test

@article{Abel1990APA,
  title={A possible alarm substance in the forced swimming test},
  author={E. Abel and P. Bilitzke},
  journal={Physiology \& Behavior},
  year={1990},
  volume={48},
  pages={233-239}
}
Rats were tested in a forced swimming paradigm under a number of conditions which showed that time of day of testing did not significantly affect duration of immobility and a shorter ten-minute test period was as effective as the traditional longer protocol which tests animals 24 hours after initial immersion. Prior foot shock and noise decreased the immobility response. In addition, swimming in a cylinder in which another rat had been swimming also decreased the immobility response. The latter… Expand

Topics from this paper

Gradient of alarm substance in the forced swimming test
  • E. Abel
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Physiology & Behavior
  • 1991
TLDR
Three studies suggest that the proposed alarm substance secreted by rats during the forced swimming test has considerable biological significance. Expand
Effects of chronic forced swimming and exposure to alarm substance: Physiological and behavioral consequences
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Rats tested for 7 consecutive days in the forced swim test in fresh water were more immobile than those tested in soiled water on all days, and Serum corticosterone and relative adrenal weights were increased but escape performance differences could not be attributed to differences in the stress-provoking consequences of the two water conditions. Expand
Ontogeny of immobility and response to alarm substance in the forced swim test
  • E. Abel
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Physiology & Behavior
  • 1993
TLDR
The ontogeny of immobility in the forced swim test and the response to alarm substance were determined in rats and males and females were not significantly different in maturation of this response. Expand
Learned immobility is also involved in the forced swimming test in mice
A modified version of the forced swimming test (FST) was utilised in order to test, for the first time in mice, the learned immobility hypothesis. From this point of view, the subjects learn to beExpand
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The fact found by Abel and his group that rats produce an ‘alarm substance’ while swimming was examined by employing a single-subject approach. Sprague-Dawley rats were tested in the forced swimmingExpand
Adrenal activity does not mediate alarm substance reaction in the forced swim test
TLDR
The results of this study indicate that the adrenals do not mediate the response to, or production of the alarm substance. Expand
Circannual changes in the duration of the immobility response of rats in the forced swim test
  • E. Abel
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Physiology & Behavior
  • 1995
TLDR
Results indicate that there is a circannual rhythm in the floating behavior of rats in the forced swim test and that animals were most immobile during the winter months and least immobile in the summer months. Expand
Strain differences in convulsions induced by alarm substance
  • E. Abel
  • Medicine, Chemistry
  • Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
  • 1993
TLDR
This study corroborates and extends previous findings that alarm substances can induce convulsions in imipramine-treated rats and indicates that some strains produce a more potent alarm substance than others. Expand
The activity of rats in a swimming situation as a function of water temperature
TLDR
It may be that a decrease in activity obtained in present laboratory models (i.e., immobility) is more relevant to the extinction of fear than despair, as reported by other researchers. Expand
The immobility response in the forced swim test: paradoxical effect of imipramine.
TLDR
The results of this study indicate that the interpretation of the immobility response as 'behavioral despair', which is based on the response to the antidepressant drugs such as imipramine, needs to be reevaluated. Expand
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